The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night, Volume 7
by Richard F. Burton
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When it was the Seven Hundred and Sixty-seventh Night,

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that Sayf al-Muluk and his Mamelukes, having cut the wood and twisted the ropes for their raft, made an end of it and launched it upon the sea; then, after breaking their bonds with the axe, and loading the craft with fruits plucked from the island-trees, they embarked at close of day; nor did any wot of their intent. They put out to sea in their raft and paddled on four months, knowing not whither the craft carried them, till their provaunt failed them and they were suffering the severest extreme of hunger and thirst, when behold, the sea waxed troubled and foamed and rose in high waves, and there came forth upon them a frightful crocodile,[FN#407] which put out its claw and catching up one of the Mamelukes swallowed him. At the sight of this horror Sayf al-Muluk wept bitterly and he and the two men[FN#408] that remained to him pushed off from the place where they had seen the crocodile, sore affrighted. After this they continued drifting on till one day they espied a mountain terrible tall and spiring high in air, whereat they rejoiced, when presently an island appeared. They made towards it with all their might congratulating one another on the prospect of making land; but hardly had they sighted the island on which was the mountain, when the sea changed face and boiled and rose in big waves and a second crocodile raised its head and putting out its claw caught up the two remaining Mamelukes and swallowed them. So Sayf al-Muluk abode alone, and making his way to the island, toiled till he reached the mountain-top, where he looked about and found a copse, and walking among the trees feel to eating of the fruits. Presently, he saw among the branches more than twenty great apes, each bigger than a he-mule, whereat he was seized with exceeding fear. The apes came down and surrounded him;[FN#409] then forewent him, signing to him to follow them, and walked on, and he too, till he came to a castle, tall of base and strong of build whose ordinance was one brick of gold and one of silver. The apes entered and he after them, and he saw in the castle all manner of rarities, jewels and precious metals such as tongue faileth to describe. Here also he found a young man, passing tall of stature with no hair on his cheeks, and Sayf al-Muluk was cheered by the sight for there was no human being but he in the castle. The stranger marvelled exceedingly at sight of the Prince and asked him, "What is thy name and of what land art thou and how camest thou hither? Tell me thy tale and hide from me naught thereof." Answered the Prince, "By Allah, I came not hither of my own consent nor is this place of my intent; yet I cannot but go from place to place till I win my wish." Quoth the youth, "And what is thy object?"; and quoth the other, "I am of the land of Egypt and my name is Sayf al-Muluk son of King Asim bin Safwan"; and told him all that had passed with him, from first to last. Whereupon the youth arose and stood in his service, saying, "O King of the Age, I was erst in Egypt and heard that thou hadst gone to the land of China; but where is this land and where lies China-land?[FN#410] Verily, this is a wondrous thing and marvellous matter!" Answered the Prince, "Sooth thou speakest but, when I left China-land, I set out, intending for the land of Hind and a stormy wind arose and the sea boiled and broke all my ships"; brief, he told him all that had befallen him till he came thither; whereupon quoth the other, "O King's son, thou hast had enough of strangerhood and its sufferings; Alhamdolillah,—praised be Allah who hath brought thee hither! So now do thou abide with me, that I may enjoy thy company till I die, when thou shalt become King over this island, to which no bound is known, and these apes thou seest are indeed skilled in all manner of crafts; and whatso thou seekest here shalt thou find." Replied Sayf al-Muluk, "O my brother I may not tarry in any place till my wish be won, albeit I compass the whole world in pursuit thereof and make quest of every one so peradventure Allah may bring me to my desire or my course lead me to the place wherein is the appointed term of my days, and I shall die my death." Then the youth turned with a sign to one of the apes, and he went out and was absent awhile, after which he returned with other apes girt with silken zones.[FN#411] They brought the trays and set on near[FN#412] an hundred chargers of gold and saucers of silver, containing all manner of meats. Then they stood, after the manner of servants between the hands of Kings, till the youth signalled to the Chamberlains, who sat down, and he whose wont it was to serve stood, whilst the two Princes ate their sufficiency. Then the apes cleared the table and brought basins and ewers of gold, and they washed their hands in rose water; after which they set on fine sugar and nigh forty flagons, in each a different kind of wine, and they drank and took their pleasure and made merry and had a fine time. And all the apes danced and gambolled before them, what while the eaters sat at meat; which when Sayf al-Muluk saw, he marvelled at them and forgot that which had befallen him of sufferings.—And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her permitted say.

When it was the Seven Hundred and Sixty-eighth Night,

She pursued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when Sayf al-Muluk saw the gestures and gambols of the apes, he marvelled thereat and forgot that which had betided him of strangerhood and its sufferings. At nightfall they lighted waxen candles in candlesticks of gold studded with gems and set on dishes of confections and fruits of sugar-candy. So they ate; and when the hour of rest was come, the apes spread them bedding and they slept. And when morning morrowed, the young man arose, as was his wont, before sunrise and waking Sayf al-Muluk said to him, "Put thy head forth of this lattice and see what standeth beneath it." So he put out his head and saw the wide waste and all the wold filled with apes, whose number none knew save Allah Almighty. Quoth he, "Here be great plenty of apes, for they cover the whole country: but why are they assembled at this hour?" Quoth the youth, "This is their custom. Every Sabbath,[FN#413] all the apes in the island come hither, some from two and three days' distance, and stand here till I awake from sleep and put forth my head from this lattice, when they kiss ground before me and go about their business." So saying, he put his head out of the window; and when the apes saw him, they kissed the earth before him and went their way. Sayf al-Muluk abode with the young man a whole month when he farewelled him and departed, escorted by a party of nigh a hundred apes, which the young man bade escort him. They journeyed with him seven days, till they came to the limits of their islands,[FN#414] when they took leave of him and returned to their places, while Sayf al-Muluk fared on alone over mount and hill, desert and plain, four months' journey, one day anhungered and the next satiated, now eating of the herbs of the earth and then of the fruits of the trees, till he repented him of the harm he had done himself by leaving the young man; and he was about to retrace his steps to him, when he saw something black afar off and said to himself, "Is this a city or trees? But I will not turn back till I see what it is." So he made towards it and when he drew near, he saw that it was a palace tall of base. Now he who built it was Japhet son of Noah (on whom be peace!) and it is of this palace that God the Most High speaketh in His precious Book, whenas He saith, "And an abandoned well and a high-builded palace."[FN#415] Sayf al-Muluk sat down at the gate and said in his mind, "Would I knew what is within yonder palace and what King dwelleth there and who shall acquaint me whether its folk are men or Jinn? Who will tell me the truth of the case?" He sat considering awhile, but, seeing none go in or come out, he rose and committing himself to Allah Almighty entered the palace and walked on, till he had counted seven vestibules; yet saw no one. Presently looking to his right he beheld three doors, while before him was a fourth, over which hung a curtain. So he went up to this and raising the curtain, found himself in a great hall[FN#416] spread with silken carpets. At the upper end rose a throne of gold whereon sat a damsel, whose face was like the moon, arrayed in royal raiment and beautified as she were a bride on the night of her displaying; and at the foot of the throne was a table of forty trays spread with golden and silvern dishes full of dainty viands. The Prince went up and saluted her, and she returned his salam, saying, "Art thou of mankind or of the Jinn?" Replied he, "I am a man of the best of mankind;[FN#417] for I am a King, son of a King." She rejoined, "What seekest thou? Up with thee and eat of yonder food, and after tell me thy past from first to last and how thou camest hither." So he sat down at the table and removing the cover from a tray of meats (he being hungry), ate till he was full; then washed his right hand and going up to the throne, sat down by the damsel who asked him, "Who art thou and what is thy name and whence comest thou and who brought thee hither?" He answered, "Indeed my story is a long but do thou first tell me who and what and whence thou art and why thou dwellest in this place alone." She rejoined, "My name is Daulat Khatun[FN#418] and I am the daughter of the King of Hind. My father dwelleth in the Capital-city of Sarandib and hath a great and goodly garden, there is no goodlier in all the land of Hind or its dependencies; and in this garden is a great tank. One day, I went out into the garden with my slave-women and I stripped me naked and they likewise and, entering the tank, fell to sporting and solacing ourselves therein. Presently, before I could be ware, a something as it were a cloud swooped down on me and snatching me up from amongst my handmaids, soared aloft with me betwixt heaven and earth, saying, 'Fear not, O Daulat Khatun, but be of good heart.' Then he flew on with me a little while, after which he set me down in this palace and straightway without stay or delay became a handsome young man daintily apparelled, who said to me, 'Now dost thou know me?' Replied I, 'No, O my lord'; and he said, 'I am the Blue King, Sovran of the Jann; my father dwelleth in the Castle Al-Kulzum[FN#419] hight, and hath under his hand six hundred thousand Jinn, flyers and divers. It chanced that while passing on my way I saw thee and fell in love with thee for thy lovely form: so I swooped down on thee and snatched thee up from among the slave-girls and brought thee to this the High-builded Castle, which is my dwelling-place. None may fare hither be he man or be he Jinni, and from Hind hither is a journey of an hundred and twenty years: wherefore do thou hold that thou wilt never again behold the land of thy father and thy mother; so abide with me here, in contentment of heart and peace, and I will bring to thy hands whatso thou seekest.' Then he embraced me and kissed me,"—And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

When it was the Seven Hundred and Sixty-ninth Night,

She resumed, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the damsel said to Sayf al-Muluk, "Then the King of the Jann, after he had acquainted me with his case, embraced me and kissed me, saying, 'Abide here and fear nothing'; whereupon he went away from me for an hour and presently returned with these tables and carpets and furniture. He comes to me every Third[FN#420] and abideth with me three days and on Friday, at the time of mid-afternoon prayer, he departeth and is absent till the following Third. When he is here, he eateth and drinketh and kisseth and huggeth me, but doth naught else with me, and I am a pure virgin, even as Allah Almighty created me. My father's name is Taj al-Muluk, and he wotteth not what is come of me nor hath he hit upon any trace of me. This is my story: now tell me thy tale." Answered the Prince, "My story is a long and I fear lest while I am telling it to thee the Ifrit come." Quoth she "He went out from me but an hour before thy entering and will not return till Third: so sit thee down and take thine ease and hearten thy heart and tell me what hath betided thee, from beginning to end." And quoth he, "I hear and I obey." So he fell to telling her all that had befallen him from commencement to conclusion but, when she heard speak of Badi'a al-Jamal, her eyes ran over with railing tears and she cried, "O Badi'a al-Jamal, I had not thought this of thee! Alack for our luck! O Badi'a al-Jamal, dost thou not remember me nor say, 'My sister Daulat Khatun whither is she gone?'" And her weeping redoubled, lamenting for that Badi'a al-Jamal had forgotten her.[FN#421] Then said Sayf al-Muluk, "O Daulat Khatun, thou art a mortal and she is a Jinniyah: how then can she be thy sister?" Replied the Princess, "She is my sister by fosterage and this is how it came about. My mother went out to solace herself in the garden, when labour-pangs seized her and she bare me. Now the mother of Badi'a al-Jamal chanced to be passing with her guards, when she also was taken with travail-pains; so she alighted in a side of the garden and there brought forth Badi'a al-Jamal. She despatched one of her women to seek food and childbirth-gear of my mother, who sent her what she sought and invited her to visit her. So she came to her with Badi'a al-Jamal and my mother suckled the child, who with her mother tarried with us in the garden two months. And before wending her ways the mother of Badi'a al-Jamal gave my mother somewhat,[FN#422] saying, 'When thou hast need of me, I will come to thee a middlemost the garden,' and departed to her own land; but she and her daughter used to visit us every year and abide with us awhile before returning home. Wherefore an I were with my mother, O Sayf al-Muluk, and if thou wert with me in my own country and Badi'a al-Jamal and I were together as of wont, I would devise some device with her to bring thee to thy desire of her: but I am here and they know naught of me; for that an they kenned what is become of me, they have power to deliver me from this place; however, the matter is in Allah's hands (extolled and exalteth be He!) and what can I do?" Quoth Sayf al-Muluk, "Rise and let us flee and go whither the Almighty willeth;" but, quoth she, "We cannot do that: for, by Allah, though we fled hence a year's journey that accursed would overtake us in an hour and slaughter us." Then said the Prince, "I will hide myself in his way, and when he passeth by I will smite him with the sword and slay him." Daulat Khatun replied, "Thou canst not succeed in slaying him save thou his soul." Asked he, "And where is his soul?"; and she answered, "Many a time have I questioned him thereof but he would not tell me, till one day I pressed him and he waxed wroth with me and said to me, 'How often wilt thou ask me of my soul? What hast thou to do with my soul?' I rejoined, 'O Hatim,[FN#423] there remaineth none to me but thou, except Allah; and my life dependeth on thy life and whilst thou livest, all is well for me; so, except I care for thy soul and set it in the apple of this mine eye, how shall I live in thine absence? An I knew where thy soul abideth, I would never cease whilst I live, to hold it in mine embrace and would keep it as my right eye.' Whereupon said he to me, 'What time I was born, the astrologers predicted that I should lose my soul at the hands of the son of a king of mankind. So I took it and set it in the crop of a sparrow, and shut up the bird in a box. The box I set in a casket, and enclosing this in seven other caskets and seven chests, laid the whole in a alabastrine coffer,[FN#424] which I buried within the marge of yon earth-circling sea; for that these parts are far from the world of men and none of them can win hither. So now see I have told thee what thou wouldst know, and do thou tell none thereof, for it is a secret between me and thee.'"—And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her permitted say.

When it was the Seven Hundred and Seventieth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when Daulat Khatun acquainted Sayf al-Muluk with the whereabouts of the soul of the Jinni who had carried her off and repeated to him his speech ending with, "And this is a secret between me and thee!" "I rejoined," quoth she, "'To whom should I tell it, seeing that none but thou cometh hither with whom I may talk thereof?' adding, 'By Allah, thou hast indeed set thy soul in the strongest of strongholds to which none may gain access! How should a man win to it, unless the impossible be fore-ordained and Allah decree like as the astrologers predicted?' Thereupon the Jinni, 'Peradventure one may come, having on his finger the seal-ring of Solomon son of David (on the twain be peace!) and lay his hand with the ring on the face of the water, saying, 'By the virtue of the names engraven upon this ring, let the soul of such an one come forth!' Whereupon the coffer will rise to the surface and he will break it open and do the like with the chests and caskets, till he come to the little box, when he will take out the sparrow and strangle it, and I shall die.'" Then said Sayf al-Muluk, "I am the King's son of whom he spake, and this is the ring of Solomon David-son on my finger: so rise, let us go down to the sea-shore and see if his words be leal or leasing!" Thereupon the two walked down to the sea-shore and the Princess stood on the beach, whilst the Prince waded into the water to his waist and laying his hand with the ring on the surface of the sea, said, "By the virtue of the names and talismans engraven on this ring, and by the might of Sulayman bid Daud (on whom be the Peace!), let the soul of Hatim the Jinni, son of the Blue King, come forth!" Whereat the sea boiled in billows and the coffer of alabaster rose to the surface. Sayf al-Muluk took it and shattered it against the rock and broke open the chests and caskets, till he came to the little box and drew thereout the sparrow. Then the twain returned to the castle and sat down on the throne; but hardly had they done this, when lo and behold! there arose a dust-cloud terrifying and some huge thing came flying and crying, "Spare me, O King's son, and slay me not; but make me thy freedman, and I will bring thee to thy desire!" Quoth Daulat Khatun, "The Jinni cometh; slay the sparrow, lest this accursed enter the palace and take it from thee and slaughter me and slaughter thee after me." So the Prince wrung the sparrow's neck and it died, whereupon the Jinni fell down at the palace-door and became a heap of black ashes. Then said Daulat Khatun, "We are delivered from the hand of yonder accursed; what shall we do now?"; and Sayf al-Muluk replied, "It behoveth us to ask aid of Allah Almighty who hath afflicted us; belike He will direct us and help us to escape from this our strait." So saying, he arose and pulling up[FN#425] half a score of the doors of the palace, which were of sandal-wood and lign-aloes with nails of gold and silver, bound them together with ropes of silk and floss[FN#426]-silk and fine linen and wrought of them a raft, which he and the Princess aided each other to hale down to the sea-shore. They launched it upon the water till it floated and, making it fast to the beach, returned to the palace, whence they removed all the chargers of gold and saucers of silver and jewels and precious stones and metals and what else was light of load and weighty of worth and freighted the raft therewith. Then they embarked after fashioning two pieces of wood into the likeness of paddles and casting off the rope-moorings, let the raft drift out to sea with them, committing themselves to Allah the Most High, who contenteth those that put their trust in Him and disappointeth not them who rely upon Him. They ceased not faring on thus four months until their victual was exhausted and their sufferings waxed severe and their souls were straitened; so they prayed Allah to vouchsafe them deliverance from that danger. But all this time when they lay down to sleep, Sayf al-Muluk set Daulat Khatun behind him and laid a naked brand at his back, so that, when he turned in sleep the sword was between them.[FN#427] At last it chanced one night, when Sayf al-Muluk was asleep and Daulat Khatun awake, that behold, the raft drifted landwards and entered a port wherein were ships. The Princess saw the ships and heard a man, he being the chief and head of the captains, talking with the sailors; whereby she knew that this was the port of some city and that they were come to an inhabited country. So she joyed with exceeding joy and waking the Prince said to him, "Ask the captain the name of the city and harbour." Thereupon Sayf al-Muluk arose and said to the captain, "O my brother, how is this harbour hight and what be the names of yonder city and its King?" Replied the Captain, "O false face![FN#428] O frosty beard! an thou knew not the name of this port and city, how camest thou hither?" Quoth Sayf al-Muluk, "I am a stranger and had taken passage in a merchant ship which was wrecked and sank with all on board; but I saved myself on a plank and made my way hither; wherefore I asked thee the name of the place, and in asking is no offence." Then said the captain, "This is the city of 'Amariyah and this harbour is called Kamin al-Bahrayn."[FN#429] When the Princess heard this she rejoiced with exceeding joy and said, "Praised be Allah!" He asked, "What is to do?"; and she answered, "O Sayf al-Muluk, rejoice in succour near hand; for the King of this city is my uncle, my father's brother."—And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

When it was the Seven Hundred and Seventy-first Night,

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that Daulat Khatun said to Sayf al-Muluk, "Rejoice in safety near hand; for the King of this city is my uncle, my father's brother and his name is 'Ali al-Muluk,"[FN#430] adding, "Say thou then to the captain, 'Is the Sultan of the city, Ali al-Muluk, well?'" He asked but the captain was wroth with him and cried, "Thou sayest, 'I am a stranger and never in my life came hither.' Who then told thee the name of the lord of the city?" When Daulat Khatun heard this, she rejoiced and knew him for Mu'in al-Din,[FN#431] one of her father's captains. Now he had fared forth in search of her, after she was lost and finding her not, he never ceased cruising till he came to her uncle's city. Then she bade Sayf al-Muluk say to him, "O Captain Mu'in al-Din, come and speak with thy mistress!" So he called out to him as she bade, whereat he was wroth with exceeding wrath and answered, "O dog, O thief, O spy, who art thou and how knowest thou me?" Then he said to one of the sailors, "Give me an ash[FN#432]-stave, that I may go to yonder plaguing Arab and break his head." So he tookt he stick and made for Sayf al-Muluk, but, when he came to the raft, he saw a something, wondrous, beauteous, which confounded his wits and considering it straitly he made sure that it was Daulat Khatun sitting there, as she were a slice of the moon; whereat he said to the Prince, "Who is that with thee?" Replied he, "A damsel by name Daulat Khatun." When the captain heard the Princess's name and knew that she was his mistress and the daughter of his King, he fell down in a fainting-fit, and when he came to himself, he left the raft and whatso was thereon and riding up to the palace, craved an audience of the King; whereupon the chamberlain went in to the presence and said, "Captain Mu'in al-Din is come to bring thee good news; so bid he be brought in." The King bade admit him; accordingly he entered and kissing ground[FN#433] said to him, "O King, thou owest me a gift for glad tidings; for thy brother's daughter Daulat Khatun hath reached our city safe and sound, and is now on a raft in the harbour, in company with a young man like the moon on the night of its full." When the King heard this, he rejoiced and conferred a costly robe of honour on the captain. Then he straightway bade decorate the city in honour of the safe return of his brother's daughter, and sending for her and Sayf al-Muluk, saluted the twain and gave them joy of their safety; after which he despatched a messenger to his brother, to let him know that his daughter was found and was with him. As soon as the news reached Taj al-Muluk he gat him ready and assembling his troops set out for his brother's capital, where he found his daughter and they rejoiced with exceeding joy. He sojourned with his brother a week, after which he took his daughter and Sayf al-Muluk and returned to Sarandib, where the Princess foregathered with her mother and they rejoiced at her safe return; and held high festival and that day was a great day, never was seen its like. As for Sayf al-Muluk, the King entreated him with honour and said to him, "O Sayf al-Muluk, thou hast done me and my daughter all this good for which I cannot requite thee nor can any requite thee, save the Lord of the three Worlds; but I wish thee to sit upon the throne in my stead and rule the land of Hind, for I offer thee of my throne and kingdom and treasures and servants, all this in free gift to thee." Whereupon Sayf al-Muluk rose and kissing the ground before the King, thanked him and answered, "O King of the Age, I accept all thou givest me and return it to thee in freest gift; for I, O King of the Age, covet not sovranty nor sultanate nor desire aught but that Allah the Most High bring me to my desire." Rejoined the King, "O Sayf al-Muluk these my treasures are at thy disposal: take of them what thou wilt, without consulting me, and Allah requite thee for me with all weal!" Quoth the Prince, "Allah advance the King! There is no delight for me in money or in dominion till I win my wish: but now I have a mind to solace myself in the city and view its thoroughfares and market-streets." So the King bade bring him a mare of the thoroughbreds, saddled and bridled; and Sayf al-Muluk mounted her and rode through the streets and markets of the city. As he looked about him right and left, lo! his eyes fell on a young man, who was carrying a tunic and crying it for sale at fifteen dinars: so he considered him and saw him to be like his brother Sa'id; and indeed it was his very self, but he was wan of blee and changed for long strangerhood and the travails of travel, so that he knew him not. However, he said to his attendants, "Take yonder youth and carry him to the palace where I lodge, and keep him with you till my return from the ride when I will question him." But they understood him to say, "Carry him to the prison," and said in themselves "Haply this is some runaway Mameluke of his." So they took him and bore him to the bridewell, where they laid him in irons and left him seated in solitude, unremembered by any. Presently Sayf al-Muluk returned to the palace, but he forgot his brother Sa'id, and none made mention of him. So he abode in prison, and when they brought out the prisoners, to cut ashlar from the quarries they took Sa'id with them, and he wrought with the rest. He abode a month's space, in this squalor and sore sorrow, pondering his case and saying in himself, "What is the cause of my imprisonment?"; while Sayf al-Muluk's mind was diverted from him by rejoicing and other things; but one day, as he sat, he bethought him of Sa'id and said to his Mamelukes, "Where is the white slave I gave into your charge on such a day?" Quoth they, "Didst thou not bid us bear him to the bridewell?"; and quoth he, "Nay, I said not so; I bade you carry him to my palace after the ride." Then he sent his Chamberlains and Emirs for Sa'id and they fetched him in fetters, and loosing him from his irons set him before the Prince, who asked him, "O young man, what countryman art thou?"; and he answered, "I am from Egypt and my name is Sa'id, son of Faris the Wazir." Now hearing these words Sayf al-Muluk sprang to his feet and throwing himself off the throne and upon his friend, hung on his neck, weeping aloud for very joy and saying, "O my brother, O Sa'id, praise be Allah for King Asim." Then they embraced and shed tears together and all who were present marvelled at them. After this Sayf al-Muluk bade his people bear Sa'id to the Hammam-bath: and they did so. When he came out, they clad him in costly clothing and carried him back to Sayf al-Muluk who seated him on the throne beside himself. When King Taj al-Muluk heard of the reunion of Sayf al-Muluk and his brother Sa'id, he joyed with you exceeding and came to them, and the three sat devising of all that had befallen them in the past from first to last. Then said Sa'id, "O my brother, O Sayf al-Muluk, when the ship sank with all on board I saved myself on a plank with a company of Mamelukes and it drifted with us a whole month, when the wind cast us, by the ordinance of Allah Almighty, upon an island. So we landed and entering among the trees took to eating of the fruits, for we were anhungred. Whilst we were busy eating, there fell on us unawares, folk like Ifrits[FN#434] and springing on our shoulders rode us[FN#435] and said to us, 'Go on with us; for ye are become our asses.' So I said to him who had mounted me, 'What art thou and why mountest thou me?' At this he twisted one of his legs about my neck, till I was all but dead, and beat upon my back the while with the other leg, till I thought he had broken my backbone. So I fell to the ground on my face, having no strength left in me for famine and thirst. From my fall he knew that I was hungry and taking me by the hand, led me to a tree laden with fruit which was a pear-tree[FN#436] and said to me, 'Eat thy fill of this tree.' So I ate till I had enough and rose to walk against my will; but, ere I had fared afar the creature turned and leaping on my shoulders again drove me on, now walking, now running and now trotting, and he the while mounted on me, laughing and saying, 'Never in my life saw I a donkey like unto thee!' We abode thus for years till, one day of the days, it chanced that we saw there great plenty of vines, covered with ripe fruit; so we gathered a quantity of grape-bunches and throwing them into a pit, trod them with our feet, till the pit became a great water-pool. Then we waited awhile and presently returning thither, found that the sun had wroughten on the grape-juice and it was become wine. So we used to drink it till we were drunken and our faces flushed and we fell to singing and dancing and running about in the merriment of drunkenness;[FN#437] whereupon our masters said to us, 'What is it that reddeneth your faces and maketh you dance and sing?' We replied, 'Ask us not, what is your quest in questioning us hereof?' But they insisted, saying, 'You must tell us so that we may know the truth of the case,' till we told them how we had pressed grapes and made wine. Quoth they, 'Give us to drink thereof'; but quoth we, 'The grapes are spent.' So they brought us to a Wady, whose length we knew not from its breadth nor its beginning from its end wherein were vines each bunch of grapes on them weighing twenty pounds[FN#438] by the scale and all within easy reach, and they said, 'Gather of these.' So we gathered a mighty great store of grapes and finding there a big trench bigger than the great tank in the King's garden we filled it full of fruit. This we trod with our feet and did with the juice as before till it became strong wine, which it did after a month; whereupon we said to them, ''Tis come to perfection; but in what will ye drink it?' And they replied, 'We had asses like unto you; but we ate them and kept their heads: so give us to drink in their skulls.' We went to their caves which we found full of heads and bones of the Sons of Adam, and we gave them to drink, when they became drunken and lay down, nigh two hundred of them. Then we said to one another, 'Is it not enough that they should ride us, but they must eat us also? There is no Majesty and there is no Might save in Allah, the Glorious, the Great! But we will ply them with wine, till they are overcome by drunkenness, when we will slay them and be at rest from them.' Accordingly, we awoke them and fell to filling the skulls and gave them to drink, but they said, 'This is bitter.' We replied, 'Why say ye 'tis bitter? Whoso saith thus, except he drink of it ten times, he dieth the same day.' When they heard this, they feared death and cried to us, 'Give us to drink the whole ten times.' So we gave them to drink, and when they swallowed the rest of the ten draughts they waxed drunken exceedingly and their strength failed them and they availed not to mount us. Thereupon we dragged them together by their hands and laying them one upon another, collected great plenty of dry vine-stalks and branches and heaped it about and upon them: then we set fire to the pile and stood afar off, to see what became of them."—And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her permitted say.

When it was the Seven Hundred and Seventy-second Night,

She pursued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that Sa'id continued, "When we set fire to the pile wherein were the Ghuls, I with the Mamelukes stood afar off to see what became of them; and, as soon the fire was burnt out, we came back and found them a heap of ashes, wherefore we praised Allah Almighty who had delivered us from them. Then we went forth about the island and sought the sea-shore, where we parted and I and two of the Mamelukes fared on till we came to a thick copse full of fruit and there busied ourselves with eating, and behold, presently up came a man tall of stature, long of beard and lengthy of ear, with eyes like cressets, driving before him and feeding a great flock of sheep.[FN#439] When he saw us he rejoiced and said to us, 'Well come, and fair welcome to you! Draw near me that I may slaughter you an ewe of these sheep and roast it and give you to eat.' Quoth we, 'Where is thine abode?' And quoth he, 'Hard by yonder mountain; go on towards it till ye come to a cave and enter therein, for you will see many guests like yourselves; and do ye sit with them, whilst we make ready for you the guest-meal.' We believed him so fared on, as he bade us, till we came to the cavern, where we found many guests, Sons of Adam like ourselves, but they were all blinded;[FN#440] and when we entered, one said, 'I'm sick'; and another, 'I'm weak.' So we cried to them, 'What is this you say and what is the cauase of your sickness and weakness?' They asked, 'Who are ye?'; and we answered, 'We are guests.' Then said they, 'What hath made you fall into the hands of yonder accursed? But there is no Majesty and there is no Might save in Allah, the Glorious, the Great! This is a Ghul who devoureth the Sons of Adam and he hath blinded us and meaneth to eat us.' Said we, 'And how did he blind you?' and they replied, 'Even as he will blind yourselves anon.' Quoth we, 'And how so?' And quoth they, 'He will bring you bowls of soured milk[FN#441] and will say to you, 'Ye are weary with wayfare: take this milk and drink it.' And when ye have drunken thereof, ye will become blind like us.' Said I to myself, 'There is no escape for us but by contrivance.' So I dug a hole in the ground and sat over it. After an hour or so in came the accursed Ghul with bowls of milk, whereof he gave to each of us, saying, 'Ye come from the desert and are athirst: so take this milk and drink it, whilst I roast you the flesh.' I took the cup and carried it to my mouth but emptied it into the hole; then I cried out, 'Alas! my sight is gone and I am blind!' and clapping my hand to my eyes, fell a-weeping and a-wailing, whilst the accursed laughed and said, 'Fear not, thou art now become like mine other guests.' But, as for my two comrades, they drank the milk and became blind. Thereupon the Ghul arose and stopping up the mouth of the cavern came to me and felt my ribs, but found me lean and with no flesh on my bones: so he tried another and finding him fat, rejoiced. Then he slaughtered three sheep and skinned them and fetching iron spits, spitted the flesh thereon and set them over the fire to roast. When the meat was done, he placed it before my comrades who ate and he with them; after which he brought a leather-bag full of wine and drank thereof and lay down prone and snored. Said I to myself, 'He's drowned in sleep: how shall I slay him?' Then I bethought me of the spits and thrusting two of them into the fire, waited till they were as red-hot coals: whereupon I arose and girded myself and taking a spit in each hand went up to the accursed Ghul and thrust them into his eyes, pressing upon them with all my might. He sprang to his feet for sweet life and would have laid hold of me; but he was blind. So I fled from him into the inner cavern, whilst he ran after me; but I found no place of refuge from him nor whence I might escape into the open country, for the cave was stopped up with stones; wherefore I was bewildered and said to the blind men, 'How shall I do with this accursed?' Replied one of them, 'O Sa'id, with a run and a spring mount up to yonder niche[FN#442] and thou wilt find there a sharpened scymitar of copper: bring it to me and I will tell thee what to do.' So I clombed to the niche and taking the blade, returned to the blind man, who said to me, 'Smite him with the sword in his middle, and he will die forthright.' So I rushed after the Ghul, who was weary with running after me and felt for the blind men that he might kill them and, coming up to him smote him with the sword a single stroke across his waist and he fell in twain. then he screamed and cried out to me, 'O man, an thou desire to slay me, strike me a second stroke.' Accordingly, I was about to smite him another cut; but he who had directed me to the niche and the scymitar said, 'Smite him not a second time, for then he will not die, but will live and destroy us.'"—And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

When it was the Seven Hundred and Seventy-third Night,

She resumed, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that Sa'id continued, "Now when I struck the Ghul with the sword he cried out to me, 'O man, an thou desire to slay me, strike me a second stroke!" I was about so to do when he who had directed me to the scymitar said, 'Smite him not a second time, for then he will not die but will live and destroy us!' So I held my hand as he bade me, and the Ghul died. Then said the blind man to me, 'Open the mouth of the cave and let us fare forth; so haply Allah may help us and bring us to rest from this place.' And I said, 'No harm can come to us now; let us rather abide here and repose and eat of these sheep and drink of this wine, for long is the land.' Accordingly we tarried there two months, eating of the sheep and of the fruits of the island and drinking the generous grape-juice till it so chanced one day, as we sat upon the beach, we caught sight of a ship looming large in the distance; so we made signs for the crew and holla'd to them. They feared to draw near, knowing that the island was inhabited by a Ghul[FN#443] who ate Adamites, and would have sheered off; but we ran down to the marge of the sea and made signs to them, with our turband-ends and shouted to them, whereupon one of the sailors, who was sharp of sight, said to the rest, "Harkye, comrades, I see these men formed lke ourselves, for they have not the fashion of Ghuls.' So they made for us, little by little, till they drew near us in the dinghy[FN#444] and were certified that we were indeed human beings, when they saluted us and we returned their salam and gave them the glad tidings of the slaying of the accursed, wherefore they thanked us. Then we carried to the ship all that was in the cave of stuffs and sheep and treasure, together with a viaticum of the island-fruits, such as should serve us days and months, and embarking, sailed on with a fair breeze three days; at the end of which the wind veered round against us and the air became exceeding dark; nor had an hour passed before the wind drave the craft on to a rock, where it broke up and its planks were torn asunder.[FN#445] However, the Great God decreed that I should lay hold of one of the planks, which I bestrode, and it bore me along two days, for the wind had fallen fair again, and I paddled with my feet awhile, till Allah the Most High brought me safe ashore and I landed and came to this city, where I found myself a stranger, solitary, friendless, not knowing what to do; for hunger was sore upon me and I was in great tribulation. Thereupon I, O my brother, hid myself and pulling off this my tunic, carried it to the market, saying in my mind, 'I will sell it and live on its price, till Allah accomplish to me whatso he will accomplish.' Then I took the tunic in my hand and cried it for sale, and the folk were looking at it and bidding for it, when, O my brother, thou camest by and seeing me commandedst me to the palace; but thy pages arrested and thrust me into the prison and there I abode till thou bethoughtest thee of me and badst bring me before thee. So now I have told thee what befel me, and Alhamdolillah—Glorified be God—for reunion!" Much marvelled the two Kings at Sa'id's tale and Taj al-Muluk having made ready a goodly dwelling for Sayf al-Muluk and his Wazir, Daulat Khatun used to visit the Prince there and thank him for his favours and talk with him. One day, he met her and said to her, "O my lady, where is the promise thou madest me, in the palace of Japhet son of Noah, saying, 'Were I with my people, I would make shift to bring thee to thy desire?'" And Sa'id said to her, "O Princess, I crave thine aid to enable him to win his will." Answered she, "Yea, verily; I will do my endeavour for him, that he may attain his aim, if it please Allah Almighty." And she turned to Sayf al-Muluk and said to him, "Be of good cheer and keep thine eyes cool and clear." Then she rose and going in to her mother, said to her, "Come with me forthright and let us purify ourselves and make fumigations[FN#446] that Badi'a al-Jamal and her mother may come and see me and rejoice in me." Answered the Queen, "With love and goodly gree;" and rising, betook herself to the garden and burnt off these perfumes which she always had by her; nor was it long before Badi'a al-Jamal and her mother made their appearance. The Queen of Hind foregathered with the other Queen and acquainted her with her daughter's safe return, whereat she rejoiced; and rejoiced in each other. Then they pitched the pavilions[FN#447] and dressed dainty viands and made ready the place of entertainment; whilst the two Princesses withdrew to a tent apart and ate together and drank and made merry; after which they sat down to converse, and Badi'a al-Jamal said, "What hath befallen thee in thy strangerhood?" Replied Daulat Khatun, "O my sister how sad is severance and how gladsome is reunion; ask me not what hath befallen me! Oh, what hardships mortals suffer!" cried she, "How so?" and the other said to her, "O my sister, I was inmured in the High-builded Castle of Japhet son of Noah, whither the son of the Blue King carried me off, till Sayf al-Muluk slew the Jinni and brought me back to my sire;" and she told her to boot all that the Prince had undergone of hardships and horrors before he came to the Castle.[FN#448] Badi'a al-Jamal marvelled at her tale and said, "By Allah, O my sister, this is the most wondrous of wonders! This Sayf al-Muluk is indeed a man! But why did he leave his father and mother and betake himself to travel and expose himself to these perils?" Quoth Daulat Khatun, "I have a mind to tell thee the first part of his history; but shame of thee hindereth me therefrom." Quoth Badi'a al-Jamal, "Why shouldst thou have shame of me, seeing that thou art my sister and my bosom-friend and there is muchel a matter between thee and me and I know thou willest me naught but well? Tell me then what thou hast to say and be not abashed at me and hide nothing from me and have no fear of consequences." Answered Daulat Khatun, "By Allah, all the calamities that have betided this unfortunate have been on thine account and because of thee!" Asked Badi'a al-Jamal, "How so, O my sister?"; and the other answered, "Know that he saw thy portrait wrought on a tunic which thy father sent to Solomon son of David (on the twain be peace!) and he opened it not neither looked at it, but despatched it, with other presents and rarities to Asim bin Safwan, King of Egypt, who gave it, still unopened, to his son Sayf al-Muluk. The Prince unfolded the tunic, thinking to put it on, and seeing thy portrait, became enamoured of it; wherefore he came forth in quest of thee, and left his folk and reign and suffered all these terrors and hardships on thine account."—And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her permitted say.

When it was the Seven Hundred and Seventy-fourth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that Daulat Khatun related to Badi'a al-Jamal the first part of Sayf al-Muluk's history; how his love for her was caused by the tunic whereon her presentment was wrought; how he went forth, passion-distraught, in quest of her; how he forsook his people and his kingdom for her sake and how he had suffered all these terrors and hardships on her account. When Badi'a al-Jamal hear this, she blushed rosy red and was confounded at Daulat Khatun and said, "Verily this may never, never be; for man accordeth not with the Jann." Then Daulat Khatun went on to praise Sayf al-Muluk and extol his comeliness and courage and cavalarice, and ceased not repeating her memories of his prowess and his excellent qualities till she ended with saying, "For the sake of Almighty Allah and of me, O sister mine, come and speak with him, though but one word!" But Badi'a al-Jamal cried, "By Allah, O sister mine, this that thou sayest I will not hear, neither will I assent to thee therein;" and it was as if she heard naught of what the other said and as if no love of Sayf al-Muluk and his beauty and bearing and bravery had gotten hold upon her heart. Then Daulat Khatun humbled herself and said, "O Badi'a al-Jamal, by the milk we have sucked, I and thou, and by that which is graven on the seal-ring of Solomon (on whom be peace!) hearken to these my words for I pledged myself in the High-builded Castle of Japhet, to show him thy face. So Allah upon thee, show it to him once, for the love of me, and look thyself on him!" And she ceased not to weep and implore her and kiss her hands and feet, till she consented and said, "For thy sake I will show him my face once and he shall have a single glance." With that Daulat Khatun's heart was gladdened and she kissed her hands and feet. Then she went forth and fared to the great pavilion in the garden and bade her slave-women spread it with carpets and set up a couch of gold and place the wine-vessels in order; after which she went into Sayf al-Muluk and to his Wazir Sa'id, whom she found seated in their lodging, and gave the Prince the glad tidings of the winning of his wish, saying, "Go to the pavilion in the garden, thou and thy brother, and hide yourselves there from the eyes of men so none in the palace may espy you, till I come to you with Badi'a al-Jamal." So they rose and repaired to the appointed pavilion, where they found the couch of gold set and furnished with cushions, and meat and wine ready served. So they sat awhile, whilst Sayf al-Muluk bethought him of his beloved and his breast was straitened and love and longing assailed him: wherefore he rose and walked forth from the vestibule of the pavilion. Sa'id would have followed him, but he said to him, "O my brother, follow me not, but sit in thy stead till I return to thee." So Sa'id abode seated, whilst Sayf al-Muluk went down into the garden, drunken with the wine of desire and distracted for excess of love-longing and passion-fire: yearning agitated him and transport overcame him and he recited these couplets,

"O passing Fair[FN#449] I have none else but thee; * Pity this slave in thy love's slavery! Thou art my search, my joy and my desire! * None save thyself shall love this heart of me: Would Heaven I knew thou knewest of my wails * Night-long and eyelids oped by memory. Bid sleep to soourn on these eyen-lids * Haply in vision I thy sight shall see. Show favour then to one thus love-distraught: * Save him from ruin by thy cruelty! Allah increase thy beauty and thy weal; * And be thy ransom every enemy! So shall on Doomsday lovers range beneath * Thy flag, and beauties 'neath thy banner be."

Then he wept and recited these also,

"That rarest beauty ever bides my foe * Who holds my heart and lurks in secresy: Speaking, I speak of nothing save her charms * And when I'm dumb in heart-core woneth she."

Then he wept sore and recited the following,

"And in my liver higher flames the fire; * You are my wish and longsome still I yearn: To you (none other!) bend I and I hope * (Lovers long- suffering are!) your grace to earn; And that you pity me whose frame by Love * Is waste and weak his heart with sore concern: Relent, be gen'rous, tender-hearted, kind: * From you I'll ne'er remove, from you ne'er turn!"

Then he wept and recited these also,

"Came to me care when came the love of thee, * Cruel sleep fled me like thy cruelty: Tells me the messenger that thou are wroth: * Allah forfend what evils told me he!"

Presently Sa'id waxed weary of awaiting him and going forth in quest of him, found him walking in the garden, distraught and reciting these two couplets,

"By Allah, by th' Almighty, by his right[FN#450] * Who read the Koran-Chapter 'Fatir[FN#451] hight; Ne'er roam my glances o'er the charms I see; * Thy grace, rare beauty, is my talk by night."

So he joined him and the twain walked about the garden together solacing themselves and ate of its fruits. Such was their case;[FN#452] but as regards the two Princesses, they came to the pavilion and entering therein after the eunuchs had richly furnished it, according to command, sat down on the couch of gold, beside which was a window that gave upon the garden. The castratos then set before them all manner rich meats and they ate, Daulat Khatun feeding her foster-sister by mouthfuls,[FN#453] till she was satisfied; when she called for divers kinds of sweetmeats, and when the neutrals brought them, they ate what they would of them and washed their hands. After this Daulat Khatun made ready wine and its service, setting on the ewers and bowls and she proceeded to crown the cups and give Badi'a al-amal to drink, filling for herself after and drinking in turn. The Badi'a al-Jamal looked from the window into the garden and gazed upon the fruits and branches that were therein, till her glance fell on Sayf al-Muluk, and she saw him wandering about the parterres, followed by Sa'id, and she heard him recite verses, raining the while railing tears. And that glance of eyes cost her a thousand signs,—And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

When it was the Seven Hundred and Seventy-fifth Night,

She continued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that when Badi'a al-Jamal caught sight of Sayf al-Muluk as he wandered about the garden, that glance of eyes cost her a thousand sighs, and she turned to Daulat Khatun and said to her (and indeed the wine sported with her senses), "O my sister, who is that young man I see in the garden, distraught, love-abying, disappointed, sighing?" Quoth the other, "Dost thou give me leave to bring him hither, that we may look on him?"; and quoth the other, "An thou can avail to bring him, bring him." So Daulat Khatun called to him, saying "O King's son, come up to us and bring us thy beauty and thy loveliness!" Sayf al-Muluk recognised her voice and came up to into the pavilion; but no sooner had he set eyes on Badi'a al-Jamal, than he fell down in a swoon; whereupon Daulat Khatun sprinkled on him a little rose-water and he revived. Then he rose and kissed ground before Badi'a al-Jamal who was amazed at his beauty and loveliness; and Daulat Khatun said to her, "Know, O Princess, that this is Sayf al-Muluk, whose hand saved me by the ordinance of Allah Almighty and he it is who hath borne all manner burthens on thine account: wherefore I would have thee look upon him with favour." Hearing this Badi'a al-Jamal laughed and said, "And who keepeth faith, that this youth should do so? For there is no true love in men." Cried Sayf al-Muluk, "O Princess, never shall lack of faith be in me, and all men are not created alike." And he wept before her and recited these verses,

"O thou, Badi'a 'l-Jamal, show thou some clemency * To one those lovely eyes opprest with witchery! By rights of beauteous hues and tints thy cheeks combine * Of snowy white and glowing red anemone, Punish not with disdain one who is sorely sick * By long, long parting waste hath waxed this frame of me: This is my wish, my will, the end of my desire, * And Union is my hope an haply this may be!"

Then he wept with violent weeping; and love and longing got the mastery over him and he greeted her with these couplets,

"Peace be to you from lover's wasted love, * All noble hearts to noble favour show: Peace be to you! Ne'er fail your form my dreams; * Nor hall nor chamber the fair sight forego! Of you I'm jealous: none may name your name: * Lovers to lovers aye should bend thee low: So cut not off your grace from him who loves * While sickness wastes and sorrows overthrow. I watch the flowery stars which frighten me; * While cark and care mine every night foreslow. Nor Patience bides with me nor plan appears: * What shall I say when questioned of my foe? God's peace be with you in the hour of need, * Peace sent by lover patient bearing woe!"

Then for the excess of his desire and ecstasy he repeated these coupletes also,

"If I to aught save you, O lords of me, incline; * Ne'er may I win of you my wish, my sole design! Who doth comprise all loveliness save only you? * Who makes the Doomsday dawn e'en now before these eyne? Far be it Love find any rest, for I am one * Who lost for love of you this heart, these vitals mine."

When he had made an end of his verses, he wept with sore weeping and she said to him, "O Prince, I fear to grant myself wholly to thee lest I find in thee nor fondness nor affection; for oftentimes man's fidelity is small and his perfidy is great and thou knowest how the lord Solomon, son of David (on whom be the Peace!), took Bilkis to his love but, whenas he saw another fairer than she, turned from her thereto." Sayf al-Muluk replied, "O my eye and O my soul, Allah hath not made all men alike, and I, Inshallah, will keep my troth and die beneath thy feet. Soon shalt thou see what I will do in accordance with my words, and for whatso I say Allah is my warrant." Quoth Badi'a al-Jamal, "Sit and be of good heart and swear to me by the right of thy Faith and let us covenant together that each will not be false to other; and whichever of us breaketh faith may Almighty Allah punish!" At these words he sat down and set his hand in her hand and they sware each to other that neither of them would ever prefer to the other any one, either of man or of the Jann. Then they embraced for a whole hour and wept for excess of their joy, whilst passion overcame Sayf al-Muluk and he recited these couplets,

"I weep for longing love's own ardency * To her who claims the heart and soul of me. And sore's my sorrow parted long from you, * And short's my arm to reach the prize I see; And mourning grief for what my patience marred * To blamer's eye unveiled my secresy; And waxed strait that whilome was so wide * Patience nor force remains nor power to dree. Would Heaven I knew if God will ever deign to join * Our lives, and from our cark and care and grief set free!"

After this mutual troth-plighting, Sayf al-Muluk arose and walked in the garden and Badi'a al-Jamal arose also and went forth also afoot followed by a slave-girl bearing somewhat of food and a flask[FN#454] of wine. The Princess sat down and the damsel set the meat and wine before her: nor remained they long ere they were joined by Sayf al-Muluk, who was received with greeting and the two embraced and sat them down.—And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her permitted say.

When it was the Seven Hundred and Seventy-sixth Night,

She pursued, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that having provided food and wine, Badi'a al-Jamal met Sayf al-Muluk with greetings, and the twain having embraced and kissed sat them down awhile to eat and drink. Then said she to him, "O King's son, thou must now go to the garden of Iram, where dwelleth my grandmother, and seek her consent to our marriage. My slave-girl Marjanah will convey thee thither and as thou farest therein thou wilt see a great pavilion of red satin, lined with green silk. Enter the pavilion heartening thyself and thou wilt see inside it an ancient dame sitting on a couch of red gold set with pearls and jewels. Salute her with respect and courtesy: then look at the foot of the couch, where thou wilt descry a pair of sandals[FN#455] of cloth interwoven with bars of gold, embroidered with jewels. Take them and kiss them and lay them on thy head[FN#456]; then put them under thy right armpit and stand before the old woman, in silence and with thy head bowed down. If she ask thee, 'Who art thou and how camest thou hither and who led thee to this land? And why hast thou taken up the sandals?' make her no answer, but abide silent till Marjanah enter, when she will speak with her and seek to win her aproof for thee and cause her look on thee with consent; so haply Allah Almight may incline her heart to thee and she may grant thee thy wish." Then she called the handmaid Marjanah hight and said to her, "As thou lovest me, do my errand this day and be not neglectful therein! An thou acccomplish it, thou shalt be a free woman for the sake of Allah Almighty, and I will deal honourably by thee with gifts and there shall be none dearer to me than thou, nor will I discover my secrets to any save thee. So, by my love for thee, fulfil this my need and be not slothful therein." Replied Marjanah, "O my lady and light of mine eyes, tell me what is it thou requirest of me, that I may accomplish it with both mine eyes." Badi'a rejoined, "Take this mortal on thy shoulders and bear him to the bloom-garden of Iram and the pavilion of my grandmother, my father's mother, and be careful of his safety. When thou hast brought him into her presence and seest him take the slippers and do them homage, and hearest her ask him, saying, 'Whence art thou and by what road art come and who led thee to this land, and why hast thou taken up the sandals and what is thy need that I give heed to it?' do thou come forward in haste and salute her with the salam and say to her, 'O my lady, I am she who brought him hither and he is the King's son of Egypt.[FN#457] 'Tis he who went to the High-builded Castle and slew the son of the Blue King and delivered the Princess Daulat Khatun from the Castle of Japhet son of Noah and brought her back safe to her father: and I have brought him to thee, that he may give thee the glad tidings of her safety: so deign thou be gracious to him.' Then do thou say to her, 'Allah upon thee! is not this young man handsome, O my lady?' She will reply, 'Yes'; and do thou rejoin, 'O my lady, indeed he is complete in honour and manhood and valour and he is lord and King of Egypt and compriseth all praiseworthy qualities.' An she ask thee, 'What is his need?' do thou make answer, 'My lady saluteth thee and saith to thee, how long shall she sit at home, a maid and unmarried? Indeed, the time is longsome upon her for she is as a magazine wherein wheat is heaped up.[FN#458] What then is thine intent in leaving her without a mate and why dost thou not marry her in thy lifetide and that of her mother, like other girls?' If she say, 'How shall we do to marry her? An she have any one in mind, let her tell us of him, and we will do her will as far as may be!" do thou make answer, 'O my lady, thy daughter saith to thee, 'Ye were minded aforetime to marry me to Solomon (on whom be peace!) and portrayed him my portrait on a tunic. But he had no lot in me; so he sent the tunic to the King of Egypt and he gave it to his son, who saw my portrait figured thereon and fell in love with me; wherefore he left his father and mother's realm and turning away from the world and whatso is therein, went forth at a venture, a wanderer, love-distraught, and hath borne the utmost hardships and honours for my sake of me.' Now thou seest his beauty and loveliness, and thy daughter's heart is enamoured of him; so if ye have a mind to marry her, marry her to this young man and forbid her not from him for he is young and passing comely and King of Egypt, nor wilt thou find a goodlier than he; and if ye will not give her to him, she will slay herself and marry none neither man nor Jinn.'" "And," continued Badi'a al-Jamal, "Look thou, O Marjanah, ma mie,[FN#459] how thou mayst do with my grandmother, to win her consent, and beguile her with soft words, so haply she may do my desire." Quoth the damsel, "O my lady, upon my head and eyes will I serve thee and do what shall content thee." Then she took Sayf al-Muluk on her shoulders and said to him, "O King's son, shut thine eyes." He did so and she flew up with him into the welkin; and after awhile she said to him, "O King's son, open thine eyes." He opened them and found himself in a garden, which was none other than the garden of Iram; and she showed him the pavilion and said, "O Sayf al-Muluk, enter therein!" Thereupon he pronounced the name of Allah Almighty and entering cast a look upon the garden, when he saw the old Queen sitting on the couch, attended by her waiting women. So he drew near her with courtesy and reverence and taking the sandals bussed them and did as Badi'a al-Jamal had enjoined him. Quoth the ancient dame, "Who art thou and what is thy country; whence comest thou and who brought thee hither and what may be thy wish? Wherefore dost thou take the sandals and kiss them and when didst thou ask of me a favour which I did not grant?" With this in came Marjanah[FN#460] and saluting her reverently and worshipfully, repeated to her what Badi'a al-Jamal had told her; which when the old Queen heard, she cried out at her and was wroth with her and said, "How shall there be accord between man and Jinn?"—And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

End of Vol. 7

Arabian Nights, Volume 7 Footnotes

[FN#1] Mayyafarikin, whose adjective for shortness is "Fariki": the place is often mentioned in The Nights as the then capital of Diyar Bakr, thirty parasangs from Nasibin, the classical Nisibis, between the upper Euphrates and Tigris.

[FN#2] This proportion is singular to moderns but characterised Arab and more especially Turcoman armies.

[FN#3] Such is the bathos caused by the Saja'-assonance: in the music of the Arabic it contrasts strangely with the baldness of translation. The same is the case with the Koran beautiful in the original and miserably dull in European languages, it is like the glorious style of the "Anglican Version" by the side of its bastard brothers in Hindostani or Marathi; one of these marvels of stupidity translating the "Lamb of God" by "God's little goat.

[FN#4] This incident is taken from the Life of Mohammed who, in the "Year of Missions" (A. H. 7) sent letters to foreign potentates bidding them embrace Al-Islam, and, his seal being in three lines, Mohammed Apostle of Allah, Khusrau Parwiz (=the Charming) was offended because his name was placed below Mohammed's. So he tore the letter in pieces adding, says Firdausi, these words:

Hath the Arab's daring performed such feat, Fed on camel's milk and the lizard's meat, That he cast on Kayanian crown his eye? Fie, O whirling world! on thy faith and fie!

Hearing of this insult Mohammed exclaimed, "Allah shall tear his kingdom!" a prophecy which was of course fulfilled, or we should not have heard of it. These lines are horribly mutilated in the Dabistan (iii. 99).

[FN#5] This "Taklid" must not be translated "girt on the sword." The Arab carries his weapon by a baldrick or bandoleer passed over his right shoulder. In modern days the " Majdal" over the left shoulder supports on the right hip a line of Tatarif or brass cylinders for cartridges: the other cross- belt (Al-Masdar) bears on the left side the Kharizah or bullet-pouch of hide; and the Hizam or waist-belt holds the dagger and extra cartridges. (Pilgrimage iii. 90.)

[FN#6] Arab. "Bab," which may mean door or gate. The plural form (Abwab) occurs in the next line, meaning that he displayed all manner of martial prowess.

[FN#7] Arab. "Farrash" (also used in Persian), a man of general utility who pitches tents, speeps the floors. administers floggings, etc. etc. (Pilgrimage iii. 90.)

[FN#8] i.e. the slogan-cry of "Allaho Akbar," which M. C. Barbier de Meynard compares with the Christian "Te Deum."

[FN#9] The Anglo-Indian term for the Moslem rite of killing animals for food. (Pilgrimage i. 377.)

[FN#10] Arab. "tawilan jiddan" a hideous Cairenism in these days; but formerly used by Al-Mas'udi and other good writers.

[FN#11] Arab. " 'Ajwah," enucleated dates pressed together into a solid mass so as to be sliced with a knife like cold pudding. The allusion is to the dough-idols of the Hanifah tribe, whose eating their gods made the saturnine Caliph Omar laugh.

[FN#12] Mr. Payne writes "Julned." In a fancy name we must not look for grammar, but a quiescent lam (l) followed by nun (n) is unknown to Arabic while we find sundry cases of "lan" (fath'd lam and nun), and Jalandah means noxious or injurious. In Oman also there was a dynasty called Julandah. for which see Mr. Badger (xiii. and passim).

[FN#13] Doubtless for Jawan-mard—un giovane, a brave See vol. iv., p. 208.

[FN#14] Mr. Payne transposes the distichs, making the last first. I have followed the Arabic order finding it in the Mac. and Bul. Edits. (ii. 129).

[FN#15] Al-Irak like Al-Yaman may lose the article in verse.

[FN#16] Arab. "Ka'ka'at": hence Jabal Ka'ka'an, the higher levels in Meccah, of old inhabited by the Jurhamites and so called from their clashing and jangling arms; whilst the Amalekites dwelt in the lower grounds called Jiyad from their generous steeds. (Pilgrimage iii. 191.)

[FN#17] Al-Shara', a mountain in Arabia.

[FN#18] See vol. vi., 249. "This (mace) is a dangerous weapon when struck on the shoulders or unguarded arm: I am convinced that a blow with it on a head armoured with a salade (cassis caelata, a light iron helmet) would stun a man" (says La Brocquiere).

[FN#19] Oman, which the natives pronounce "Aman," is the region best known by its capital Maskat. These are the Omana Moscha and Omanum Emporium of Ptolemy and the Periplus. Ibn Batutah writes Amman, but the best dictionaries give "Oman." (N.B.—Mr. Badger, p. 1, wrongly derives Sachalitis from "Sawahily": it is evidently "Sahili.") The people bear by no means the best character: Ibn Batutah (fourteenth century) says, "their wives are most base; yet, without denying this, their husbands express nothing like jealousy on the subject." (Lee, p. 62.)

[FN#20] The name I have said of a quasi-historical personage, son of Joktan, the first Arabist and the founder of the Tobba ("successor") dynasty in Al-Yaman; while Jurham, his brother, established that of Al-Hijaz. The name is probably chosen because well-known.

[FN#21] Arab. "Hakim": lit. one who orders; often confounded by the unscientific with Hakim, doctor, a philosopher. The latter re-appears in the Heb. Khakham applied in modern days to the Jewish scribe who takes the place of the Rabbi.

[FN#22] As has been seen, acids have ever been and are still administered as counter-inebriants, while hot spices and sweets greatly increase the effect of Bhang, opium, henbane, datura &c. The Persians have a most unpleasant form of treating men when dead-drunk with wine or spirits. They hang them up by the heels, as we used to do with the drowned, and stuff their mouths with human ordure which is sure to produce emesis.

[FN#23] Compare the description of the elephant-faced Vetala (Katha S.S. Fasc. xi. p. 388).

[FN#24] The lover's name Sa'ik= the Striker (with lightning); Najmah, the beloved= the star.

[FN#25] I have modified the last three lines of the Mac. Edit. which contain a repetition evidently introduced by the carelessness of the copyist.

[FN#26] The Hindu Charvakas explain the Triad, Bramha, Vishnu and Shiva, by the sexual organs and upon Vishnu's having four arms they gloss, "At the time of sexual intercourse, each man and woman has as many." (Dabistan ii. 202.) This is the Eastern view of Rabelais' "beast with two backs."

[FN#27] Arab. "Rabbat-i," my she Lord, fire (nar) being feminine.

[FN#28] The prose-rhyme is answerable for this galimatias.

[FN#29] A common phrase equivalent to our "started from his head."

[FN#30] Arab. "Mariduna"=rebels (against Allah and his orders).

[FN#31] Arab. Yafis or Yafat. He had eleven sons and was entitled Abu al-Turk because this one engendered the Turcomans as others did the Chinese, Scythians, Slaves (Saklab), Gog, Magog, and the Muscovites or Russians. According to the Moslems there was a rapid falling off in size amongst this family. Noah's grave at Karak (the Ruin) a suburb of Zahlah, in La Brocquiere's "Valley of Noah, where the Ark was built," is 104 ft. 10 in. Iong by 8 ft. 8 in. broad. (N.B.—It is a bit of the old aqueduct which Mr. Porter, the learned author of the "Giant Cities of Bashan," quotes as a "traditional memorial of primeval giants"—talibus carduis pascuntur asini!). Nabi Ham measures only 9 ft. 6 in. between headstone and tombstone, being in fact about as long as his father was broad.

[FN#32] See Night dcliv., vol. vii, p. 43, infra.

[FN#33] According to Turcoman legends (evidently pose- Mohammedan) Noah gave his son, Japhet a stone inscribed with the Greatest Name, and it had the virtue of bringing on or driving off rain. The Moghuls long preserved the tradition and hence probably the sword.

[FN#34] This expresses Moslem sentiment; the convert to Al- Islam being theoretically respected and practically despised. The Turks call him a "Burma"=twister, a turncoat, and no one either trusts him or believes in his sincerity.

[FN#35] The name of the city first appears here: it is found also in the Bul. Edit., vol. ii. p. 132.

[FN#36] Arab. " 'Amala hilah," a Syro-Egyptian vulgarism.

[FN#37] i.e. his cousin, but he will not use the word.

[FN#38] Arab. "La'ab," meaning very serious use of the sword: we still preserve the old "sword-play."

[FN#39] Arab. " Ikhsa," from a root meaning to drive away a dog.

[FN#40] Arab. "Hazza-hu," the quivering motion given to the "Harbak" (a light throw-spear or javelin) before it leaves the hand.

[FN#41] Here the translator must either order the sequence of the sentences or follow the rhyme.

[FN#42] Possibly taken from the Lions' Court in the Alhambra=(Dar) Al-hamra, the Red House.

[FN#43] Arab. "Shazarwan" from Pers. Shadurwan, a palace, cornice, etc. That of the Meccan Ka'abah is a projection of about a foot broad in pent-house shape sloping downwards and two feet above the granite pavement: its only use appears in the large brass rings welded into it to hold down the covering. There are two breaks in it, one under the doorway and the other opposite Ishmael's tomb; and pilgrims are directed during circuit to keep the whole body outside it.

[FN#44] The "Musafahah" before noticed, vol. vi., p. 287.

[FN#45] i.e. He was confounded at its beauty.

[FN#46] Arab. "'Ajib," punning upon the name.

[FN#47] Arab. "Zarraf" (whence our word) from "Zarf"=walking hastily: the old "cameleopard" which originated the nursery idea of its origin. It is one of the most timid of the antelope tribe and unfit for riding.

[FN#48] Arab. "Takht," a useful word, meaning even a saddle. The usual term is "Haudaj"=the Anglo Indian "howdah."

[FN#49] "Thunder-King," Arab. and Persian.

[FN#50] i.e. "He who violently assaults his peers" (the best men of the age). Batshat al- Kubra=the Great Disaster, is applied to the unhappy "Battle of Bedr" (Badr) on Ramazan 17, A.H. 2 (=Jan. 13, 624) when Mohammed was so nearly defeated that the Angels were obliged to assist him (Koran, chapts. iii. 11; i. 42; viii. 9). Mohammed is soundly rated by Christian writers for beheading two prisoners Utbah ibn Rabi'a who had once spat on his face and Nazir ibn Haris who recited Persian romances and preferred them to the "foolish fables of the Koran." What would our forefathers have done to a man who spat in the face of John Knox and openly preferred a French play to Pentateuch ?

[FN#51] Arab. "Jilbab" either habergeon (mail-coat) or the buff-jacket worn under it. [FN#52] A favourite way, rough and ready, of carrying light weapons, often alluded to in The Nights. So Khusrawan in Antar carried "under his thighs four small darts, each like a blazing flame."

[FN#53] Mr. Payne very reasonably supplants here and below Fakhr Taj (who in Night dcxxxiv is left in her father's palace and who is reported to be dead in Night dclxvii.) by Star o' Morn. But the former is also given in the Bul. Edit. (ii. 148), so the story teller must have forgotten all about her. I leave it as a model specimen of Eastern incuriousness.

[FN#54] There is some chivalry in his unwillingness to use the magical blade. As a rule the Knights of Romance utterly ignore fair play and take every dirty advantage in the magic line that comes to hand.

[FN#55] Arab. "Hammal al-Hatabi"=one who carries to market the fuel-sticks which he picks up m the waste. In the Koran (chaps. cxi.) it is applied to Umm Jamil, wife of Mohammed's hostile cousin, Abd al-Uzza, there termed Abu Lahab (Father of smokeless Flame) with the implied meaning that she will bear fuel to feed Hell-fire.

[FN#56] Arab. "Akyal," lit. whose word (Kaul) is obeyed, a title of the Himyarite Kings, of whom Al-Bergendi relates that one of them left an inscription at Samarcand, which many centuries ago no man could read. This evidently alludes to the dynasty which preceded the "Tobba" and to No. xxiv. Shamar Yar'ash (Shamar the Palsied). Some make him son of Malik surnamed Nashir al-Ni'am (Scatterer of Blessings) others of Afrikus (No. xviii.), who, according to Al-Jannabi, Ahmad bin Yusuf and Ibn Ibdun (Pocock, Spec. Hist. Arab.) founded the Berber (Barber) race, the remnants of the Causanites expelled by the "robber, Joshua son of Nun," and became the eponymus of "Africa." This word which, under the Romans, denoted a small province on the Northern Sea-board, is, I would suggest, A'far-Kahi (Afar-land), the Afar being now the Dankali race, the country of Osiris whom my learned friend, the late Mariette Pasha, derived from the Egyptian "Punt" identified by him with the Somali country. This would make "Africa," as it ought to be, an Egyptian (Coptic) term.

[FN#57] Herodotus (i. 80) notes this concerning the camel. Elephants are not allowed to walk the streets in Anglo-Indian cities, where they have caused many accidents.

[FN#58] Arab. Wahk or Wahak, suggesting the Roman retiarius. But the lasso pure and simple, the favourite weapon of shepherd and herdsmen was well-known to the old Egyptians and in ancient India. It forms one of the T-letters in the hieroglyphs.

[FN#59] Compare with this and other Arab battle-pieces the Pandit's description in the Katha Sarit Sagara, e.g. "Then a confused battle arose with dint of arrow, javelin, lance, mace and axe, costing the lives of countless soldiers (N.B.— Millions are nothing to him); rivers of blood flowed with the bodies of elephants and horses for alligators, with the pearls from the heads of elephants for sands and with the heads of heroes for stones. That feast of battle delighted the flesh- loving demons who, drunk with blood instead of wine, were dancing with the palpitating trunks," etc.. etc. Fasc. xii. 526.

[FN#60] The giraffe is here mal-place: it is, I repeat, one of the most timid of the antelope tribe. Nothing can be more graceful than this huge game as it stands under a tree extending its long and slender neck to the foliage above it; but when in flight all the limbs seem loose and the head is carried almost on a level with the back.

[FN#61] The fire-arms may have been inserted by the copier; the cross-bow (Arcubalista) is of unknown antiquity. I have remarked in my book of the Sword (p. 19) that the bow is the first crucial evidence of the distinction between the human weapon and the bestial arm, and like the hymen or membrane of virginity proves a difference of degree if not of kind between man and the so-called lower animals. I note from Yule's Marco Polo (ii., 143) " that the cross-bow was re-introduced into European warfare during the twelfth century"; but the arbalesta was well known to the bon roi Charlemagne (Regnier Sat. X).

[FN#62] In Al-Islam this was unjustifiable homicide, excused only because the Kafir had tried to slay his own son. He should have been summoned to become a tributary and then, on express refusal, he might legally have been put to death.

[FN#63] i.e. "Rose King," like the Sikh name "Gulab Singh"=Rosewater Lion, sounding in translation almost too absurd to be true.

[FN#64] "Repentance acquits the penitent" is a favourite and noble saying popular in Al-Islam. It is first found in Seneca; and is probably as old as the dawn of literature.

[FN#65] Here an ejaculation of impatience.

[FN#66] i.e. "King Intelligence": it has a ludicrous sound suggesting only "Dandanha-i-Khirad,,=wisdom-teeth. The Mac. Edit. persistently keeps "Ward Shah," copyist error.

[FN#67] i.e. Fakhr Taj, who had been promised him in marriage. See Night dcxxxlii. supra, vol. vi.

[FN#68] The name does not appear till further on, after vague Eastern fashion which, here and elsewhere I have not had the heart to adopt. The same may be found in Ariosto, passim.

[FN#69] A town in Persian Irak, unhappily far from the "Salt sea."

[FN#70] "Earthquake son of Ennosigaius" (the Earthquake- maker).

[FN#71] Arab. "Ruba'al-Kharab" or Ruba'al-Khali (empty quarter), the great central wilderness of Arabia covering some 50,000 square miles and still left white on our maps. (Pilgrimage, i 14.)

[FN#72] Pers. "Life King", women also assume the title of Shah.

[FN#73] Arab. "Mujauhar": the watery or wavy mark upon Eastern blades is called the "jauhar," lit.=jewel. The peculiarity is also called water and grain, which gives rise to a host of double-entendres, puns, paronomasias and conceits more or less frigid.

[FN#74] Etymologically meaning tyrants or giants; and applied to great heathen conquerors like Nimrod and the mighty rulers of Syria, the Anakim, Giants and other peoples of Hebrew fable. The Akasirah are the Chosroes before noticed.

[FN#75] Arab. "Asker jarrar" lit. "drawing": so in Egyptian slang "Nas jarrar"=folk who wish to draw your money out of your pocket, greedy cheats.

[FN#76] In Turkestan: the name means "Two lights."

[FN#77] In Armenia, mentioned by Sadik Isfahani (Transl. p. 62).

[FN#78] This is the only ludicrous incident in the tale which justifies Von Hammer's suspicion. Compare it with the combat between Rustam and his son Sohrab.

[FN#79] I cannot understand why Trebutien, iii., 457, writes this word Afba. He remarks that it is the "Oina and Riya" of Jami, elegantly translated by M. de Chezy in the Journal Asiatique, vol. 1, 144.

[FN#80] I have described this part of the Medinah Mosque in Pilgrimage ii., 62-69. The name derives from a saying of Mohammed (of which there are many variants), "Between my tomb and my pulpit is a garden of the Gardens of Paradise" (Burckhardt, Arabia, p. 337). The whole Southern portico (not only a part) now enjoys that honoured name and the tawdry decorations are intended to suggest a parterre.

[FN#81] Mohammed's companions (Ashab), numbering some five hundred, were divided into two orders, the Muhajirin (fugitives) or Meccans who accompanied the Apostle to Al-Medinah (Pilgrimage ii. 138) and the Ansar (Auxiliaries) or Medinites who invited him to their city and lent him zealous aid (Ibid. ii. 130). The terms constantly occur in Arab history.

[FN#82] The "Mosque of the Troops," also called Al-Fath (victory), the largest of the "Four Mosques:" it is still a place of pious visitation where prayer is granted. Koran, chap. xxxiii., and Pilgrimage ii. 325.

[FN#83] Arab. "Al-Wars," with two meanings. The Alfaz Adwiyah gives it=Kurkum, curcuma, turmeric, safran d'Inde; but popular usage assigns it to Usfur, Kurtum or safflower (carthamus tinctorius). I saw the shrub growing all about Harar which exports it, and it is plentiful in Al-Yaman (Niebuhr, p. 133), where women affect it to stain the skin a light yellow and remove freckles: it is also an internal remedy in leprosy. But the main use is that of a dye, and the Tob stained with Wars is almost universal in some parts of Arabia. Sonnini (p. 510) describes it at length and says that Europeans in Egypt call it "Parrot-seeds" because the bird loves it, and the Levant trader "Saffrenum."

[FN#84] Two men of the great 'Anazah race went forth to gather Karaz, the fruit of the Sant (Mimosa Nilotica) both used for tanning, and never returned. Hence the proverb which is obsolete in conversation. See Burckhardt, Prov. 659: where it takes the place of "ad Graecas Kalendas."

[FN#85] Name of a desert (Mafazah) and a settlement on the Euphrates' bank between Basrah and the site of old Kufah near Kerbela; the well known visitation place in Babylonian Irak.

[FN#86] Of the Banu Sulaym tribe; the adjective is Sulami not Sulaymi.

[FN#87] Arab. "Amam-ak"=before thee (in space); from the same root as Imam=antistes, leader of prayer; and conducing to perpetual puns, e.g. "You are Imam-i (my leader) and therefore should be Amam-i" (in advance of me).

[FN#88] He was angry, as presently appears, because he had heard of certain love passages between the two and this in Arabia is a dishonour to the family.

[FN#89] Euphemy for "my daughter."

[FN#90] The Badawin call a sound dollar "Kirsh hajar" or "Riyal hajar" (a stone dollar; but the word is spelt with the greater h).

[FN#91] Arab. Burdah and Habarah. The former often translated mantle is a thick woollen stuff, brown or gray, woven oblong and used like a plaid by day and by night. Mohammed's Burdah woven in his Harem and given to the poet, Ka'ab, was 7 1/2 ft. long by 4 1/2: it is still in the upper Serraglio of Stambul. In early days the stuff was mostly striped; now it is either plain or with lines so narrow that it looks like one colour. The Habarah is a Burd made in Al-Yaman and not to be confounded with the Egyptian mantilla of like name (Lane, M. E. chapt. iii.).

[FN#92] Every Eastern city has its special title. Al-Medinah is entitled "Al-Munawwarah" (the Illumined) from the blinding light which surrounds the Prophet's tomb and which does not show to eyes profane (Pilgrimage ii. 3). I presume that the idea arose from the huge lamps of "The Garden." I have noted that Mohammed's coffin suspended by magnets is an idea unknown to Moslems, but we find the fancy in Al-Harawi related of St. Peter, "Simon Cephas (the rock) is in the City of Great Rome, in its largest church within a silver ark hanging by chains from the ceiling." (Lee, Ibn Batutah, p. 161).

[FN#93] Here the fillets are hung instead of the normal rag-strips to denote an honoured tomb. Lane (iii. 242) and many others are puzzled about the use of these articles. In many cases they are suspended to trees in order to transfer sickness from the body to the tree and whoever shall touch it. The Sawahili people term such articles a Keti (seat or vehicle) for the mysterious haunter of the tree who prefers occupying it to the patient's person. Briefly the custom still popular throughout Arabia, is African and Fetish.

[FN#94] Al-Mas'udi (chap. xcv.), mentions a Hind bint Asma and tells a facetious story of her and the "enemy of Allah," the poet Jarir.

[FN#95] Here the old Shiah hatred of the energetic conqueror of Oman crops out again. Hind's song is that of Maysum concerning her husband Mu'awiyah which Mrs. Godfrey Clark ('Ilam-en-Nas, p. 108) thus translates:—

A hut that the winds make tremble Is dearer to me than a noble palace; And a dish of crumbs on the floor of my home Is dearer to me than a varied feast; And the soughing of the breeze through every crevice Is dearer to me than the beating of drums.

Compare with Dr. Carlyle's No. X.:—

The russet suit of camel's hair With spirits light and eye serene Is dearer to my bosom far Than all the trappings of a queen, etc. etc.

And with mine (Pilgrimage iii. 262):—

O take these purple robes away, Give back my cloak of camel's hair And bear me from this towering pile To where the black tents flap i' the air, etc. etc.

[FN#96] AI-Hajjaj's tribal name was Al-Thakifi or descendant of Thakif. According to Al-Mas'udi, he was son of Farighah (the tall Beauty) by Yusuf bin Ukayl the Thakafite and vint au monde tout difforme avec l'anus obstrue. As he refused the breast, Satan, in human form, advised suckling him with the blood of two black kids, a black buck-goat and a black snake; which had the desired effect.

[FN#97] Trebutien, iii., 465, translates these sayings into Italian.

[FN#98] Making him a "Kawwad"=leader, i.e. pimp; a true piece of feminine spite. But the Caliph prized Al-Hajjaj too highly to treat him as in the text.

[FN#99] i.e. "The overflowing," with benefits; on account of his generosity.

[FN#100] The seventh Ommiade A. H. 96-99 (715-719). He died of his fine appetite after eating at a sitting a lamb, six fowls, seventy pomegranates, and 11 1/4 lbs. of currants. He was also proud of his youth and beauty and was wont to say, "Mohammed was the Apostle and Abu Bakr witness to the Truth; Omar the Discriminator and Othman the Bashful, Mu'awiyah the Mild and Yazid the Patient; Abd al-Malik the Administrator and Walid the Tyrant; but I am the Young King!"

[FN#101] Arab. Al-Jazirah, "the Island;" name of the region and the capital.

[FN#102] i.e. "Repairer of the Slips of the Generous," an evasive reply, which of course did not deceive the questioner.

[FN#103] Arab. "Falastin," now obsolete. The word has echoed far west and the name of the noble race has been degraded to "Philister," a bourgeois, a greasy burgher.

[FN#104] Saying, "The Peace be with thee, O Prince of True Believers!"

[FN#105] Arab. "Mutanakkir," which may also mean proud or in disguise.

[FN#106] On appointment as viceroy. See vol. iii 307.

[FN#107] The custom with outgoing Governors. It was adopted by the Spaniards and Portuguese especially in America. The generosity of Ikrimah without the slightest regard to justice or common honesty is characteristic of the Arab in story-books.

[FN#108] The celebrated half-way house between Jaffa and Jerusalem.

[FN#109] Alias the Kohistan or mountain region, Susiana (Khuzistan) whose capital was Susa; and the head-quarters of fire-worship. Azar (fire) was the name of Abraham's father whom Eusebius calls "Athar." (Pilgrimage iii. 336.)

[FN#110] Tenth Ommiade A.H. 105-125 (=724-743), a wise and discreet ruler with an inclination to avarice and asceticism. According to some, the Ommiades produced only three statesmen, Mu'awayah, Abd al-Malik and Hisham; and the reign of the latter was the end of sage government and wise administration.

[FN#111] About 1,250, which seems a long price; but in those days Damascus had been enriched with the spoils of the world adjacent.

[FN#112] Eleventh Ommiade dynasty, A.H. 125-126 (=743-744). Ibn Sahl (son of ease, i.e. free and easy) was a nickname; he was the son of Yazid II. and brother of Hisham. He scandalised the lieges by his profligacy, wishing to make the pilgrimage in order to drink upon the Ka'abah-roof; so they attacked the palace and lynched him. His death is supposed to have been brought about (27th of Jamada al-Akhirah = April 16, 744) by his cousin and successor Yazid (No. iii.) surnamed the Retrencher. The tale in the text speaks well for him; but generosity amongst the Arabs covers a multitude of sins, and people say, "Better a liberal sinner than a stingy saint."

[FN#113] The tents of black wool woven by the Badawi women are generally supported by three parallel rows of poles lengthways and crossways (the highest line being the central) and the covering is pegged down. Thus the outline of the roofs forms two or more hanging curves, and these characterise the architecture of the Tartars and Chinese; they are still preserved in the Turkish (and sometimes in the European) "Kiosque," and they have extended to the Brazil where the upturned eaves, often painted vermilion below, at once attract the traveller's notice.

[FN#114] See vol. iv., 159. The author of "Antar," known to Englishmen by the old translation of Mr. Terrick Hamilton, secretary of Legation at Constantinople. There is an abridgement of the forty-five volumes of Al-Asma'i's "Antar" which mostly supplies or rather supplied the "Antariyyah" or professional tale-tellers; whose theme was the heroic Mulatto lover.

[FN#115] The "Dakkah" or long wooden sofa, as opposed to the "mastabah" or stone bench, is often a tall platform and in mosques is a kind of ambo railed round and supported by columns. Here readers recite the Koran: Lane (M.E. chapt. iii.) sketches it in the "Interior of a Mosque."

[FN#116] Alif, Ha and Waw, the first, twenty-seventh and twenty-sixth letters of the Arabic alphabet: No. 1 is the most simple and difficult to write caligraphically.

[FN#117] Reeds washed with gold and used for love-letters, &c.

[FN#118] Lane introduced this tale into vol. i., p. 223, notes on chapt. iii., apparently not knowing that it was in The Nights. He gives a mere abstract, omitting all the verse, and he borrowed it either from the Halbat al-Kumayt (chapt. xiv.) or from Al-Mas'udi (chapt. cxi.). See the French translation, vol. vi. p. 340. I am at pains to understand why M. C. Barbier de Maynard writes "Rechid" with an accented vowel; although French delicacy made him render, by "fils de courtisane," the expression in the text, "O biter of thy mother's enlarged (or uncircumcised) clitoris" (Bazar).

[FN#119] In Al-Mas'udi the Devil is "a young man fair of favour and formous of figure," which is more appropriate to a "Tempter." He also wears light stuffs of dyed silks.

[FN#120] It would have been more courteous in an utter stranger to say, O my lord.

[FN#121] The Arab Tempe (of fiction, not of grisly fact).

[FN#122] These four lines are in Al-Mas'udi, chapt, cxviii. Fr. Trans. vii. 313, but that author does not tell us who wrote them.

[FN#123] i.e. Father of Bitterness=the Devil. This legend of the Foul Fiend appearing to Ibrahim of Mosul (and also to Isam, N. dcxcv.) seems to have been accepted by contemporaries and reminds us of similar visitations in Europe—notably to Dr. Faust. One can only exclaim, "Lor, papa, what nonsense you are talking!" the words of a small girl whose father thought proper to indoctrinate her into certain Biblical stories. I once began to write a biography of the Devil; but I found that European folk-lore had made such an unmitigated fool of the grand old Typhon-Ahriman as to take away from him all human interest.

[FN#124] In Al-Mas'udi the Caliph exclaims, "Verily thou hast received a visit from Satan!"

[FN#125] Al-Mas'udi, chapt. cxix. (Fr. transl. vii., 351) mentions the Banu Odhrah as famed for lovers and tells the pathetic tale of 'Orwah and 'Afra.

[FN#126] Jamil bin Ma'amar the poet has been noticed in Vol. ii. 102; and he has no business here as he died years before Al-Rashid was born. The tale begins like that of Ibn Mansur and the Lady Budur (Night cccxxvii.), except that Mansur does not offer his advice.

[FN#127] Arab. "Halumma," an interjection=bring! a congener of the Heb. "Halum"; the grammarians of Kufah and Bassorah are divided concerning its origin.

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