How to Analyze People on Sight - Through the Science of Human Analysis: The Five Human Types
by Elsie Lincoln Benedict and Ralph Paine Benedict
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The "Six-Footer"

Because any individual's height is determined by his skeleton, extreme tallness is a sign of a larger than average bony structure. The extreme Osseous is therefore tall.

But you must remember that large joints are more significant than height. Even when found in short people they indicate a large osseous tendency.

Large Bones for His Body

So bear in mind that any person whose bones are large for his body is somewhat of the Osseous type, regardless of whether he is short or tall and regardless of how much fat or muscle he may have. The large-jointed person when fat is an Osseous-Alimentive. A large-jointed man of muscle would be an Osseous-Muscular.

The "Small Osseous"

A very short person then may be predominantly Osseous if his bones are proportionately large for his body. Such an individual is called a "Small Osseous."

A head that is high for his body and inclines to be straight up and down goes with the extreme Osseous type. (See Chart 8) It does not resemble a sphere like the Alimentive, is not kite-shaped like the Thoracic, nor square like the Muscular. It is higher than any of the others, stands on a longer, more angular neck, and his "Adam's Apple" is usually in evidence.

The Pioneer Type

Like each of the other types, the Osseous is a result of a certain environment. Rigorous, remote regions require just such people, and these finally gave rise to this stoical nature. The outposts of civilization are responsible for his evolution.

Pioneering, with its hardship, its menacing cold and dearth of comforts, in far countries at last produced a man who could stand them, who could "live through" almost anything and still dominate his surroundings.

Not a "Softie"

The Osseous does not give way to his feelings. He keeps his griefs, sorrows, ambitions and most of his real opinions to himself. He is the farthest from a "softie" of any type.

If you desire to know at once what kind of person the Osseous is, put the Alimentive and Thoracic types together and mix them thoroughly. The Osseous is the opposite of that mixture.

Each and every trait he possesses is one whose exact opposite you will find in one or the other of these first two types.

Consistency in Types

As we go on in this chapter you will see why all kinds of people make up the world, for Nature has outdone herself in the distinctions between the five human types.

Each type is made up of certain groups of traits with which we have come in contact all our lives but which we have never classified; and each "set" of traits comprising a type has a consistency which nothing less than Mother Nature could have produced. You will be interested to see how accurate are the statements concerning each type and how they are proven again and again in every type you associate with.

Guesswork is no longer necessary in the sizing up of strangers. You can know them better than their mothers know them if you will get these nutshells of facts clearly in your mind and then apply them.

His High Cheek Bones

Cheek bones standing higher than the average are always indicative either of a large Thoracic or a large Osseous element.

If the distance between the cheeks is so wide as to make this the widest section of the face, it is probable that the person is more Thoracic than Osseous. But if his face is narrow across the cheek bones, and especially if it runs perpendicularly down to the jaw-corners from that point instead of tapering, the person is large of the Osseous type.

Built on the Oblong

An oblong is what the Osseous brings to mind. His body outlines approximate the oblong—a squareness plus length. He is full of right angles and sharp corners. (See Chart 7)

His face is built on the oblong (See Chart 8) and if you will notice the side-head of the next Osseous man you meet you will see that even a side view presents more nearly the appearance of the oblong than of any other geometrical figure.

The Oblong Hand

"The gnarled hand" well describes that of the Osseous. The hand outlines of this type also approximate the oblong. (See Chart 8) It runs straight down instead of tapering when the fingers are held close together.

The hand of the Osseous matches his body, head and face. It is bony, angular, large-jointed and as rigid as it looks. The inflexibility of his hand is always apparent in his handshake.

Knotty Fingers

Knotty fingers characterize the hands of this type. Their irregular appearance comes from the size of the joints which are large, in keeping with all the joints running throughout his organism.

Everything in one of Nature's creatures matches the other parts. Agassiz, the great naturalist, when given the scale of a fish could reconstruct for you the complete organism of the type of fish from which it came. Give a tree-leaf to a botanist and he will reconstruct the size, shape, structure and color of the tree back of it. He will describe to you its native environment and its functions; what its bark, blossoms and branches look like and what to do to make it grow.

No Guesswork in Nature

Nature has no accidents. With her everything is organized, everything has a purpose, and every part of a thing, inside and out, matches the whole. So the hand of the Osseous and the face of the Osseous match the body and head.

This is also true of every other type. The Alimentive has small, fat, dimpled hands and feet like his body; the Thoracic has tapering hands and feet to match his face and body; the Muscular's body, hands and feet are all square; but the Osseous has a bony body, so his hands and feet are equally bony.

The Man of Slow Movements

"He is too slow for me," you have heard some one say of another. Perhaps you heard it said today. Review the outward appearance of all the people you know who have this reputation, from those of your earliest childhood down to that person of whom it was spoken today—and you will find that every one of them resembled the bony type we have just been describing.

Look back and call to mind the appearance of all the "rapid" ones and you will find that in every case they possessed high color, high chests or high-bridged noses. Take another look for the easy-going amenable ones, and see how plump they all were!

The Straight-Laced

None of these things "just happened." They are the result of the law of cause and effect. The connection between external and internal traits is becoming clearer every day and reveals some very unexpected things.

One that has been discovered very recently is that the straight-faced are the straight-laced. Notice for yourself and you will find that every person who is really "straight-laced" is a person with a straight face—that is, a face with straighter up-and-down lines than the average.

Think back over those you have known who come under this heading and you will find no actually round-faced people amongst them.

No matter how sanctimonious, religious or correct a person may act when his position or the occasion demands it, if he has a round, "moon" face he is not really straight-laced at heart. Any one who knows him well enough to know his real nature will tell you so.

The Naturally Conventional

The "born Puritan," the ascetic, and the naturally conventional person is, on the other hand, invariably an individual of more severe facial outlines.

This person may be in an unconventional position; your straight-faced, severe-lined person may be a gambler, a boot-legger, or follow any other line defying the conventions; but he is at heart a conservative after all. For instance, you will always find, when you know him, that he does things in a way that is very conventional to him. That is, he has decided standards, rules, habits and requirements, and he clings rigidly to them in the transaction of his business, regardless of how lax the business itself may be.

"A certain way of doing things" means as much to him, at heart, as it means little to the circular-faced people.

Systematic and Methodical

"A place for everything and everything in its place" is a rule preached and practised by people of this type.

The Osseous person does not mislay his things. He knows so well where they are that he can "go straight to them in the dark." Such a man is careful of his tools and keeps his work-bench or desk "shipshape." A woman of this type is an excellent housekeeper. Her sewing basket, dresser drawers and pantry shelves are all systematically arranged in apple-pie order.

The typical New England housewife, who washes on Mondays, irons on Tuesdays and bakes on Saturdays for forty years, is a direct descendant of the Puritans, most of whom belong to this bony, pioneering type.

The Stiff Sitter

Extremely Osseous people are inclined to be somewhat formal in their movements. They make fewer motions than any other type. They do not wave their hands or arms about when talking and are almost devoid of gesticulation of any kind. They sit upright instead of slumping down in their chairs, except when tall and lanky, and usually prefer "straight-backs" to rockers.

The Osseous Walk

The extremely raw-boned person has also a formal gait. His walk, like all his other movements, is inclined to be deliberate and somewhat mechanical.

Nothing about the five types is more interesting than the walk which distinguishes each. The Alimentive undulates or rolls along; the Thoracic is an impulsive walker, and the Muscular is forceful in his walk. But the Osseous walks mechanically, deliberately, and refuses to hurry or speed up.

The Naturally Poised

The Osseous has more natural poise than any other type.

He is not impressionable, excitable or arousable. Things do not "stir him up" as they do other people. He is more self-contained, self-controlled and self-sufficient than any other. He is not easily carried off his feet and seldom yields to impulse. It is difficult to get him to do anything on the spur of the moment. He usually has his evenings, Sundays and vacations all planned in advance and won't change his schedule.

Not Given to "Nerves"

Literally as well as figuratively the Osseous is not a man of "nerves." Every fiber of his being is less susceptible to outside stimuli than that of other types. In this he is the exact opposite of the Thoracic whose nerves, as we have pointed out, are so finely organized that he is hypersensitive.

Resists Change

Osseous people do not change anything, from their hair dress to their minds, any oftener than necessary. When they do, it is for what they consider overpoweringly good reasons.

These people are not flighty. They have their work, their time and their lives laid out systematically and do not allow trivialities to upset them. They take a longer time to deliberate on a proposed line of action, but once they have made a decision, adhere to it with much greater tenacity than any other type.

The Constant

People of this type are not fickle nor flirtatious. They love few; but once having become enamored are not easily turned aside. It is this type that remains true to one love through many years, sometimes for life.

The Implacable

The Osseous are not prone to sudden outbursts of temper. But they have the unbending kind when it is aroused.

Never forgiving and never forgetting is a trait of these people as contrasted with the Thoracic.

The Alimentive avoids those he does not like and forgets them because it is too much bother to hate; the Thoracic flames up one moment and forgives the next; the Muscular takes it out in a fight then and there, or argues with you about it.

But the Osseous despises, hates and loathes—and keeps on for years after every one else has forgotten all about it. The "rock-bound Puritan" type, as stony as the New England land from which it gets its living, is always bony. The implacable father who turns his child away from home, with orders "never to darken his door again," always has a lot of bone in his structure. Those who refuse to be softened into forgiveness by the years are always of this type.

Not Adaptable

It is difficult for the Osseous to "fit in." He is not adaptable and in this is once again the opposite of the Thoracic. It is impossible for him to adjust himself quickly to people or places.

Because he is unyielding, unbending and unadjustable he is called "sot in his ways."

He should not be misjudged for this inadaptability, however, for it is as natural to him as smoothness is to the Alimentive and impulsiveness to the Thoracic. He is made that way and is no more to blame for it than you are for having brown eyes instead of blue.

The One-Track Man

"Single-track minds" are characteristic of this type. They get an idea or an attitude and it is there to stay. They think the same things for many years and follow a few definite lines of action most of their lives.

But it is to be remembered in this connection that this type often accomplishes more through his intensive concentration than more versatile types. While they follow many by-paths in search of their goal the Osseous sticks to the main track.

The Born Specialist

"This one thing I do," is a motto of the Osseous. They are the least versatile of any type and do not like to jump from one kind of work to another.

They prefer to do one thing at a time, do it well and finish it before starting anything else. Because of this the Osseous stars in specialities.

Dislikes Many Irons in the Fire

The man who likes many irons in the fire is never an Osseous. To have more than one problem before him at one time makes him irritable, upset and exasperated.

The Most Dependable Type

The unchangingness which handicaps the Osseous in so many ways is responsible for one very admirable trait. That trait is dependability.

The Osseous is reliable. He can be taken at his word more often than any other type, for he lives up to it with greater care.

Always on Time

When an Osseous person says, "I will meet you at four o'clock at the corner of Main and Market," he will arrive at Main and Market at four o'clock. He will not come straggling along, nor plead interruptions, nor give excuses. He will be on the exact spot at the exact hour.

In this he is again a contrast to the first two types. An Alimentive man will roll into the offing at a quarter, or more likely, a half hour past the time, smilingly apologize and be so naive you forgive and let it go at that.

The Thoracic will arrive anywhere from five after four to six o'clock, drown you in a thrilling narrative of just how it all happened, and never give you a chance to voice your anger till he has smoothed it all out of you.

An Exacting Man

But the Osseous is disdainful of such tactics and you had better beware of using them on him. He is dependable himself and demands it of others—a little trait all of us have regarding our own particular virtues.

Likes Responsibility

Responsibility, if it does not entail too many different kinds of thought and work, is enjoyed by the Osseous.

He can be given a task, a job, a position and he will attend to it. Entrust him with a commission of any kind, from getting you a certain kind of thread to discovering the North Pole, and he will come pretty near carrying it out, if he undertakes it.

Finishes What He Starts

If an Osseous decides to do a piece of work for you you can go ahead and forget all about it. No need to advise, urge, watch, inspire, coax and cajole him to keep him at it. He prefers to keep at a thing if he starts it himself. You may have to hurry him but you will not have to watch him in order to know he is sticking to his task. This type starts few things but he brings those few to a pretty successful conclusion.

The Martyr of the Ages

"Died for a cause" has been said of many people, but those people have in every known instance been possessed of a larger-than-average bony structure.

The pure Alimentive seldom troubles his head about causes. The Thoracic is the type that lives chiefly for the pleasure of the moment and the adventures of life. The Muscular fights hard and works hard for various movements.

But it is the Osseous who dies for his beliefs.

It is the Osseous or one who is largely of this type who languishes in prison through long years, refusing to retract.

He is enabled to do this because the ostracism, jibes and criticism with which other types are finally cowed, have little effect upon him. On the contrary, opposition of any kind whets his determination and makes him keep on harder than ever.

Takes the Opposite Side

"If you want him to do a thing, tell him to do the opposite," is a well-known rule supposed to work with certain kinds of people.

You have wondered why it sometimes worked and sometimes didn't, but it is no mystery to the student of Human Analysis.

When it worked, the person you tried it on was an Osseous or one largely osseous in type; and when it didn't he was of some other type.

"Contrary?" complained a man of a bony neighbor recently, "Contrary is his middle name."

"I am open to conviction but I would like to see the man who could convince me!" is always said by a man whose type you will be sure to recognize.

An "Againster"

"I don't know what it is but I'm against it," is the inside mental attitude of the extremely raw-boned, angular man or woman.

They often, unconsciously, refrain from making a decision about a thing till the other fellow makes his. That settles it; they take the other side.

Think back over your school-days and call to mind the visage and bodily shape of the boy who was always on the opposite side, who just naturally disagreed, who "stood out" against the others. He was a bony lad every time.

Remember the "Fatty" with a face like a full moon? Did he do such things? He did not. He was amenable, easy-going, good natured, and didn't care how the discussion came out, so long as it didn't delay the lunch hour.

Remember the boy or girl who had the pick of the school for company whenever there was a party, who danced well and was so sparkling that you always felt like a pebble competing against a diamond when they were around? That boy or girl had a high chest, or high color, or a high-bridged nose—and usually all three.

But the one you couldn't persuade, who couldn't be won over, who refused to give in, who held up all the unanimous votes till everybody was disgusted with him, and who rather gloried in the distinction—that boy had big bones and a square jaw—the proof that he was a combination of the Osseous and Muscular types.

The Human Balance Wheel

To keep the rest of the world from running away with itself, to prevent precipitous changes in laws, customs and traditions, has always been one of the functions performed for society by the bony people.

These people are seldom over-persuaded, and being able to retain a perpendicular position while the rest of the world is being swayed this way and that, they act as society's balance wheel.

The Osseous changes after a while, but it is a long while, and by the time he does, the rest of the world has marched on to something new which he opposes in its turn.

Wears Same Style Ten Years

Even the clothes worn by this type tell the same story. Styles may come and styles may go, but the Osseous goes on forever wearing the same lines and the same general fashions he wore ten years before. If you will recall the men who continued wearing loose, roomy suits long after the "skin-tight" fashions came in, or the women who kept to long, full skirts when short ones were the vogue you will note that every one of them had large joints or long faces.

Bony people find a kind of collar or hat that just suits, and to that hat and that collar they will stick for twenty years!

Disdains the Fashions

In every city, neighborhood and country crossroads there is always somebody who defies the styles of today by wearing the styles of ten years ago.

Every such person is a bony individual—never under any circumstances a moon-faced, round-bodied one. In every case you will find that his face is longer, his nose is longer, or his jaw and hands are longer than the average—all Osseous indications.

When He is Rich

The bony man's adherence to one style or to one garment is not primarily because he wishes to save money, though saving money is an item that he never overlooks. It is due rather to his inability to change anything about himself in accordance with outside influence until a long time has elapsed.

Doesn't Spend Money Lavishly

The Osseous is, as stated at the head of this chapter, a "stayer" and this applies to everything he wears, thinks, says, believes, and to the way he carries on every activity of his life.

No matter how rich he may be he will not buy one kind of car today and another tomorrow, nor one house this week and another in six weeks.

He uses his money, as all of us do, to maintain his type-habits and to give freer rein to them, not to change them to any extent. This type likes sameness. He likes to "get acquainted" with a thing. He never takes up fads and is the most conservative of all types. Unlike the Thoracic, he avoids extremes in everything and dislikes anything savoring of the "showy" or conspicuous.

Not a Social Star

Because he dislikes display, refuses to yield to the new fangled fashions of polite society and finds it hard to adapt himself to people, the man of this type is seldom a social success.

He is the least of a "ladies' man" of all the types. The Osseous woman is even less disposed to social life than the Osseous man because the business and professional demands, which compel men of this type to mingle with their fellows, are less urgent with her.

Likes the Same Food

The same "yesterday, today and forever" is the kind of food preferred by this type. He seldom orders anything new. The tried and true things he has eaten for twenty-five years are his favorites and it is almost impossible to win him away from them. "I have had bread and milk for supper every Sunday night for thirty years," a bony man said to us not long ago.

Means What He Says

The Osseous does not flatter and seldom praises. Even when he would like to, the words do not come easily. But when he does give you a compliment you may know he means it. He is incisive and specific—a little too much so to grace modern social intercourse where so much is froth.

A Man of Few Words

A man of few words is always and invariably a man whose bones are large for his body. The fat man uses up a great many pleasant, suave, merry, harmless words; the Thoracic inundates you with conversation; the Muscular argues, declares and states; but the Osseous alone is sparing of his words.

The Hoarder

Bony people are never lavish with anything. They do not waste anything nor throw anything away. These are the people who save things and store them away for years against the day when they may find some use for them. When they do part with them it is always to pass them on "where they will do some one some good."

Careful of Money

You never saw a stingy fat man in your life. Imagine a two-hundred-pound miser! Neither have you ever seen a really stingy man who was red-faced and high-chested. Nor have you ever found a real Muscular who was a "tightwad."

But you have known some people who were pretty close with their money. And every one of them was inclined to boniness.

When He is Poor

Bony men are seldom "broke" for they are more careful of expenditures than any other type. Even when they receive small salaries this type of person always has something laid by. But the extreme Osseous never makes a million. The same caution which prevents his spending much money also prevents the plunges that make big money.

The Osseous cares more for money than any one else. This is what has enabled him, when combined with some other type, to be so successful in banking—a business where you risk the other man's money, not your own.

The extreme Osseous is never lax or extravagant with his money no matter how much he has. He never believes in paying any more for a thing than is necessary. Take note of the men who carry purses for silver instead of letting their change lie loose in their pockets. They are bony every time! Fat people and florid people are the ones who let their greenbacks fall on the floor while paying the cashier!

Fear of the Future

"The rainy day" doesn't worry the fat people or the florid ones, but it is seldom out of the consciousness of the bony men and women. So they cling to their twenty-dollar-a-week clerkships for years because they are afraid to tackle anything entailing risk.

Pays His Bills

"I had rather trust a bony man than any other kind," is what the credit experts have told us. "Other things being equal, he is the most reliable type in money matters, and pays his bills more promptly."

The bony man is one who seldom approaches the credit man, however. He usually has enough to get the few things he really wants and if not he waits till he has.

Extremely bony husbands give their wives smaller allowances in proportion to their total income than any other type, and because they are systematic themselves they are more likely to ask for reports and itemizations as to where it goes.

The fat husbands and the florid husbands are the ones who give their wives their last cent and never ask what becomes of it.

The Repressed Man

The Osseous man or woman is always somewhat repressed. Unlike the Thoracic, who uncorks and bubbles like a champagne bottle, he keeps the lid on his feelings.

Bony people are always more reticent than others. They invariably tell less of their private or personal affairs. One may live across the hall from a bony man for years without knowing much about him. He is as secretive as the Thoracic is confiding and as guarded as the Alimentive is naive.

Loyal to His Few Friends

"Once your friend always your friend" can be said about the Osseous oftener than any other type.

The Osseous does not make friends easily and is not a "mixer" but keeps his friends for many years. He "takes to" very few people but is exceedingly loyal to those of his choice.

The "Salt of the Earth"

People of the Osseous type say little, they do little for you and they do not gush—but they are always there when you need them and "always the same." They write few letters to you when away, and use few words and little paper when they do. They are likely to fill every page, to write neatly, to waste no margins and to avoid flourishes. Their letters seldom require an extra stamp.

Plans Ahead

Foresight, laying plans far into the future, and keeping an eye out for breakers ahead, financially and otherwise, are tendencies which come natural to the Osseous.

He does not like to wait until the last moment to do a thing. He dislikes unexpectedness and emergencies of any kind. He is always prepared. For instance a bony person will think out every move of a long journey before boarding his train. Weeks in advance he will have the schedule marked and put away in his coat pocket—and he knows just which coat he is going to wear too!

The Longest Lived

The Osseous lives longer than any other type, for two reasons. The first is that his lack of "nerves" saves him from running down his batteries. He seldom becomes excited and does not exhaust himself in emotional orgies.

The second is that he habitually under-eats—usually because he does not care so much for food as the first three types, but quite often because he prefers to save the money.

People He Dislikes

The bony man does not like people who try to speed him up, hurry him, or make him change his habits. Flashy people irritate him. But his worst aversions are the people who try to dictate to him. This type can not be driven. The only way to handle him is to let him think he is having his own way.

Likes the Submissive

Amenable people who never interfere with him yet lend themselves to his plans, desires and eccentricities are the favorites of this type.

Diseases He is Most Susceptible To

No diseases can be said to strike the Osseous more frequently than any other type.

But moodiness, fear—especially financial fear—long-sustained hatreds and resentments, and lack of change are indirectly responsible for those diseases which bring about the end, in the majority of cases.

Music He Likes

Martial, classical music and ballads are favorites with the Osseous. Old-time tunes and songs appeal to him strongly.

Jazz, which the Alimentive loves, is disliked by most bony people.

Reading He Prefers

Only a few kinds of reading, a few favorite subjects and a few favorite authors are indulged in by this type.

He will read as long as twenty-five years on one subject, master it and ignore practically everything else. When he becomes enamored of an author he reads everything he writes.

Reading that points directly to some particular thing he is really interested in makes up many of his books and magazines.

He is the kind of man who reads the same newspaper for half a century.

Physical Assets

His great endurance, capacity for withstanding hardship, indifference to weather, and his sane, under-eating habits are the chief physical assets of this type.

Physical Liabilities

This type has no physical characteristics which can be called liabilities except the tendency to chronic diseases. Even in this he runs true to form—slow to acquire and slow to cure.

His Favorite Sports

Hiking and golf are the favorite sports of this type because these demand no sudden spurts of energy. He likes them because they can be carried on with deliberation and independence. He does not care for any sport involving team work or quick responses to other players. Except when combined with the Thoracic type he especially avoids tennis.

Favorite Entertainments

Serious plays in which his favorite actors appear are the entertainments preferred by this type. He cares least of all for vaudeville.

Social Assets

The Osseous has no traits which can properly be called social assets. His general uprightness comes nearest to standing him in good stead socially, however.

Social Liabilities

Stiffness, reticence, physical awkwardness and the inability to pose or to praise are the chief social handicaps of this type.

Emotional Assets

The Osseous is not emotional and can not be said to possess any assets that are purely emotional.

Emotional Liabilities

The lack of emotional fervor and enthusiasm prevents this type from impressing others.

Business Assets

Keeping his word, orderliness and system are the chief business assets of this type.

Business Liabilities

A disinclination to mix, the inability to adapt himself to his patrons and a tendency to hold people too rigidly to account are the business handicaps of the Osseous.

Domestic Strength

Constancy and faithfulness are his chief domestic assets.

Domestic Weaknesses

Tightness with money, a tendency to be too exacting and dictatorial, and to fail to show affection are the things that frequently prevent marriage for the Osseous and endanger it when he does marry.

Should Aim At

The Osseous should aim at being more adjustable to people and to his environment in general. He should try to take a greater interest in others and then show it.

Should Avoid

Indifference and the display of it, solitude and too few interests are things the Osseous needs to avoid.

His Strong Points

Dependability, honesty, economy, faithfulness and his capacity for finishing what he starts are the strongest points of this type.

His Weakest Points

Stubbornness, obstinacy, slowness, over-cautiousness, coldness and a tendency to stinginess are the weakest links in people of the extreme Osseous type.

How to Deal with this Type Socially

There is little to be done with the Osseous when you meet him socially except to let him do what he wants to do.

Don't interfere with him if you want him to like you.

How to Deal with this Type in Business

As an employee, give him responsibility and then let him alone to do it his way.

Then keep your hands off.

Don't give him constant advice; don't try to drive him.

Let him be as systematic as he likes.

When dealing with him in other business ways rely on him and let him know you admire his dependability.

Remember, the distinguishing marks of the Osseous, in the order of their importance, are PROPORTIONATELY LARGE BONES FOR THE BODY, PROMINENT JOINTS and A LONG FACE. Any person who has these is largely of the Osseous type no matter what other types may be included in his makeup.


The Cerebral Type

"The Thinker"

All those in whom the nervous system is more highly developed than any other are Cerebrals.

This system consists of the brain and nerves. The name comes from the cerebrum or thinking part of the brain.

Meditation, imagining, dreaming, visualizing and all voluntary mental processes take place in the cerebrum, or brain, as we shall hereinafter call it. The brain is the headquarters of the nervous system—its "home office"—just as the stomach is the home office of the Alimentive system and the heart and lungs the home office of the Thoracic.

Your Freight System

The Thoracic system may be compared to a great freight system, with each of its tributaries—from the main trunk arteries down to the tiniest blood vessels—starting from the heart and carrying its cargo of blood to every part of the body by means of the power furnished by the lungs.

Your Telegraph System

But the nervous system is more like an intricate telegraph system. Its network of nerves runs from every outlying point of the body into the great headquarters of the brain, carrying sense messages notifying us of everything heard, seen, touched, tasted or smelled.

As soon as the brain receives a message from any of the five senses it decides what to do about it and if action is decided on, sends its orders back over the nerve wires to the muscles telling them what action to perform.

Your Working Agents

This latter fact—that the muscles are the working agents of the body—also explains why the Muscular type is naturally more active than any of the others.

Source of Your Raw Materials

The body may be compared to a perfectly organized transportation system and factory combined. The Alimentive system furnishes the raw materials for all the systems to work on.

Stationary Equipment

The bones of the body are like the telegraph poles, the bridges and structures for the protection and permanence of the work carried on by the other systems of the body.

Now poles, bridges and structures are less movable, less alterable than any of the other parts of a transportation system, and likewise the bony element in man makes him less alterable in every other way than he would otherwise be. A predominance of it in any individual indicates a preponderance of this immovable tendency in his nature.

Mind and matter are so inseparably bound up together in man's organism that it is impossible to say just where mind ends and matter begins. But this we know: that even the mind of the bony person partakes of the same unbending qualities that are found in the bones of his body.

"Every Cell Thinks"

Thomas A. Edison, as level-headed and unmystical a scientist as lives, says, "Every cell in us thinks." Human Analysis proves to us that something very near this is the case for it shows how the habitual mental processes of every individual are always "off the same piece of goods" as his body.

Thus the fat man's mind acts as his body acts—evenly, unhurriedly, easefully and comfortably. The florid man's mind has the same quickness and resourcefulness that distinguish all his bodily processes. The muscular man's mind acts in the same strenuous way that his body acts, while the bony man's brain always has an immovable quality closely akin to the boniness of his body.

He is not necessarily a "bonehead," but this phrase, like "fathead," is no accident.

The Large Head on the Small Body

As pointed out before, the larger any organ or system the more will it tend to express itself. So, the large-headed, small-bodied man runs more to mental than to physical activities, and is invariably more mature in his thinking. (See Chart 9) Conversely, the Alimentive type gets its traits from that elemental stage in human development when we did little but get and assimilate food, and when thinking was of the simplest form. In those days man was more physical than mental; he had a large stomach but a small head.

So today we see in the pure Alimentive type people who resemble their Alimentive ancestors. They have the same proportionately large stomach and proportionately small head,—with the stomach-system dominating their thoughts, actions and lives.

The Cerebral is the exact opposite of this. He has a top-heavy head, proportionately large for his body, and a proportionately undeveloped stomach system.

His Small Assimilative System

The extreme Cerebral differs from other types chiefly in the fact that while his head is unusually large compared to the body, his alimentive, thoracic, muscular and bony systems are smaller and less developed than the average. The latter fact is due to the same law which causes the Alimentive to have a large body and a small head. Nature is a wonderful efficiency engineer. She provides only as much space as is required for the functioning of any particular organ, giving extra space only to those departments that need it.

The Cerebral-Alimentive is the combination which makes most of the "magnates" and the self-made millionaires. Such a man has all the Alimentive's desires for the luxurious comforts and "good things of life," combined with sufficient brains to enable him to make the money necessary to get them.

Nature doesn't give the pure Alimentive a large skull because he doesn't need it for the housing of his proportionately small brain, but concentrates on giving him a big stomach fitted with "all modern conveniences." On the other hand, the head of the Cerebral is large because his brain is large. The skull which is pliable and unfinished at birth grows to conform to the size and shape of the brain as the glove takes on the shape of the hand inside it.

Stomach vs. Brain

Because the Alimentive and Cerebral systems are farthest removed from each other, evolutionally, a large brain and a large stomach are a very unusual combination. Such an individual would be a combination of the Alimentive and Cerebral types and would have the Alimentive's fat body with a large highbrow head of the Cerebral. The possession of these two highly developed but opposite kinds of systems places their owner constantly in the predicament of deciding between the big meal he wants and the small one he knows he should have for good brain work.

We are so constructed that brain and stomach—each of which demands an extra supply of blood when performing its work—can not function with maximum efficiency simultaneously.

Why Light Lunches

When your stomach is busy digesting a big meal your brain takes a vacation. This little fact is responsible for millions of light luncheons daily. The strenuous manual worker can empty a full dinner pail and profit by it but the brain worker long ago discovered that a heavy midday meal gave him a heavy brain for hours afterwards.

Clear Thinking and a Clear Stomach

Clear thinking demands a clear stomach because an empty stomach means that the blood reserves so necessary to vivid thinking are free to go to the brain. Without good blood coursing at a fairly rapid rate through the brain no man can think keenly or concentratedly. This explains why you think of so many important things when your stomach is empty that never occur to you when your energy is being monopolized by digestion.

Heavy Dinners and Heavy Speeches

All public speakers have learned that a heavy dinner means a heavy speech.

Elbert Hubbard's rule when on his speaking tours was one every orator should follow. "Ten dollars extra if I have to eat," said Fra Elbertus—a far cry from the days when we "fed up" the preacher at Sunday dinner with the expectation of hearing a better sermon!

Uses His Head

Just as assimilation is the favorite activity of the Alimentive type, head work is the favorite activity of the large-headed Cerebral. He is so far removed, evolutionally, from the stomach stage that his stomach is as much a remnant with him as the brain is a rudiment with the extreme Alimentive.

The extra blood supply which nature furnishes to any over-developed part of the body also tends to encourage him in thinking, just as the same condition encourages the fat man in eating.

Forgets to Eat

An Alimentive never forgets dinner time.

But the Cerebral is so much more interested in food for his brain than food for his body that he can go without his meals and not mind it. He is likely to have a book and a cracker at his meals—and then forget to eat the cracker!

Physical Sensitivity

We are "mental" in proportion to the sensitiveness of our mental organization. The Cerebral possesses the most highly developed brain center of any type and is therefore more sensitive to all those stimuli which act upon the mind.

His whole body bespeaks it. The fineness of his features is in direct contrast to some of the other types. The unusual size of his brain denotes a correspondingly intricate organization of nerves, for the nerves are tiny elongations of the brain.

The intellectual sensitiveness of any individual can be accurately estimated by noting the comparative size of his brain and body.

His Triangular Head and Face

A triangle is the geometrical figure approximated by the Cerebral's front face and head.

If he is a pure, extreme Cerebral a triangle is again what you are reminded of when you look at his head from the side, for his head stands on a small neck, his forehead stands out at the top, while his back head is long. These bring the widest part of his head nearer the top than we find it in other types.

Delicate Hands

A thin, delicate hand denotes a larger-than-average Cerebral element. (See Chart 10)

Smooth Fingers

What have long been known as "smooth fingers" are typical of the Cerebral. These are not to be confused with the fat, pudgy babyish fingers of the Alimentive, for though the latter's fingers are smooth around, they do not present straight outlines at the sides. They puff out between the joints.

Smooth fingers are characteristic of the extreme Cerebral type. They are called this because their outlines run straight up and down.

The joints of the Alimentive finger (See Chart 2) mark the narrowest places owing to the fact that the joints are not changeable. In the Osseous fingers (See Chart 8) the opposite is true. The joints mark the widest spots and the spaces between are sunken.

The fingers of the Thoracic are inclined to be pointed like his head, while the Muscular's fingers are square at the end and look the power they possess.

But the Cerebral has fingers unlike any of these. There is no fat to make them pudgy and no muscle to make them firm. Neither are there large joints to make them knotty. Their outlines therefore run in almost straight lines and the whole hand presents a more frail, aesthetic appearance.

Meditation His Keynote

Thinking, contemplating, reflecting—all the mental processes coming under the head of "meditation"—constitute the keynote of this type.

The Alimentive lives to eat, the Thoracic to feel, the Muscular to act, the Osseous to stabilize, but the Cerebral lives to meditate.

Air Castles

He loves to plan, imagine, dream day-dreams, visualize and go over and over in his mind the manifold possibilities, probabilities and potentialities of many things.

When he carries this to extremes—as the person with a huge head and tiny body is likely to do—he often overlooks the question of the practicability of the thing he is planning. He inclines to go "wild-catting," to dream dreams that are impossible of fruition.

Thought for Thought's Sake

He will sit by the hour or by the day thinking out endless ultimates, for the sheer pleasure it gives him. Other men blame him, criticise him and ridicule him for this and for the most part he does fail of the practical success by which the efficient American measures everything.

But the fact must never be forgotten that the world owes its progress to the men who could see beyond their nose, who could conceive of things no one had ever actually seen.

This type, more than any other, has been the innovator in all forms of human progress.

The Dreamer

"Everything accomplished starts with the dream of it," is a saying we all know to be true. Yet we go on forever giving all the big prizes to the doers. But the man who can only dream lives in a very hostile world. His real world is his thoughts but whenever he steps out of them into human society he feels a stranger and he is one.

Doesn't Fit

The world of today is ruled by people who accomplish. "Putting it over," "delivering the goods," "getting it across," are a part of our language because they represent the standards of the average American today.

The Cerebral is as much out of place in such an environment as a fish is on dry land. He knows it and he shows it. He doesn't know what the other kind are driving at and they know so little of what he is driving at that they have invented a special name for him—the "nut."

Doing isn't his line. He prefers the pleasures of "thinking over" to all the "putting over" in the world. This type usually is a failure because he takes it all out in dreaming without ever doing the things necessary to make his dream come true.

A "Visionary"

These predilections for overlooking the obvious, the tangible and the necessary elements in everyday existence tend to make of the Cerebral what he is so often called—a "visionary."

For instance, he will build up in his mind the most imposing superstructure for an invention and confidently tell you "it will make millions," but forget to inform himself on such essential questions as "will it work?" "Is it transportable?" or "Is there any demand for it?"

Ahead of His Time

"He was born ahead of his time" applies oftenest to a man of this type.

He has brains to see what the world needs and not infrequently sees how the world could get it. But he is so averse to action himself that unless active people take up his schemes they seldom materialize.

What We Owe to the Dreamers

Men in whom the Cerebral type predominated anticipated every step man has made in his political, social, individual, industrial, religious and economic evolution. They have seen it decades and sometimes centuries in advance. But they were always ridiculed at first.

The Mutterings of Morse

History is replete with the stories of unappreciated genius. In Washington, D. C., you will have pointed out to you a great elm, made historic by Samuel Morse, inventor of the telegraph. He could not make the successful people of his day give him a hearing, but he was so wrapped up in his invention that he used to sit under this tree whenever the weather permitted, and explain all about it to the down-and-outers and any one else who would stop. "Listen to the mutterings of that poor old fool" said the wise ones as they hurried by on the other side of the street. But today people come from everywhere to see "The Famous Morse Elm" and do homage to the great mind that invented the telegraph.

"Langley's Folly"

Today we fly from continent to continent and air travel is superseding land and water transportation whenever great speed is in demand. A man receives word that his child is dangerously ill; he steps into an airplane and in less than half the time it would take trains or motors to carry him, alights at his own door.

Commerce, industry, war and the future of whole nations are being revolutionized by this man-made miracle. Yet it is but a few short years since S. P. Langley was sneered at from one end of this country to the other because he stooped to the "folly" of inventing a "flying machine."

The Trivial Telephone

Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone. But it was many years before he could induce anybody to finance it, though some of the wealthiest, and therefore supposedly wisest, business men of the day were asked to do so. None of them would risk a dollar on it. Even after it had been tested at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia and found to work perfectly, its possibilities were so little realized that for a long while no one could be found to furnish the funds necessary to place it upon the market.

The Wizardry of Wireless

Then after the world had become accustomed to transacting millions of dollars worth of business daily over the once despised telegraph and telephone it took out its doubts on Marconi and his "wireless telegraphy." "It's impossible," they said. "Talk without wires? Never!"

But now the radio needles pierce the blue from San Diego to Shanghai and from your steamer in mid-ocean you can say good night to your loved one in Denver.

Frank Bacon's Play

Ideas always have to go begging at first, and the greater the idea the rougher the sledding.

The most successful play ever put on in America was "Lightnin'," written by Frank Bacon, a typical Cerebral-Osseous. It ran every night for three years in New York City. It has made a million people happy and a million dollars for its sponsors. But when Mr. Bacon, who also plays the title role, took it to the New York producers they refused it a try-out. But because he had faith in his dream and persisted, his name and his play have become immortal.

An Ideal Combination

The ideal combination is a dreamer who can DO or a doer who knows the power of a DREAM. Thinking and acting—almost every individual is doing too much of one and too little of the other!

The World's Two Classes

The world is divided roughly into these two classes: those who act without thinking (and as a result are often in jail); and those who think without acting (and as a result are often in the poorhouse).

To be a Success

To be a successful individual today you have got to dream and then DO; plan and then PRODUCE; contemplate and then CONSTRUCT; think it out and then WORK it out.

If you do the latter at the expense of the former you are doomed to work forever for other people, to play some other man's game. If you do the former at the expense of the latter you are doomed to know only the fringes of life, never to be taken seriously and never to achieve.

Pitfalls for Dreamers

If you are inclined to take your pleasure out in cerebrating instead of creating; if it suffices you to see a thing in your imagination whether it ever comes to pass or not, you are at a decided disadvantage in this hustling world; and you will never be a success.

Pitfalls for the Doer

On the other hand if you are content to do what other men dream about and never have dreams of your own you will probably always have a berth but will never have a million. You will exist but you will never know what it is to live.

The Hungry Philosopher

The extreme Cerebral can sit on a park bench with an empty purse and an empty stomach and get as much pleasure out of reflecting on the "whichness of the what and the whitherness of the wherefore" as an Alimentive gets out of a planked steak. Needless to say, each is an enigma to the other. Yet most people imagine that because both are human and both walk on their hind legs they are alike. They are no more alike than a cow and a canary.

His Frail Body

The extreme Cerebral type finds it difficult to do things because, as we have seen, he is deficient in muscle—one of the vital elements upon which activity and accomplishment are based. This type has little muscle, little bone, and little fat.

Deficient in "Horse Power"

He is not inactive for the same reason that the Alimentive is; his stomach processes do not slow him down. But his muscles are so undeveloped that he has little inward urge toward activity and little force back of his movements. His heart and lungs are small, so that he also lacks "steam" and "horse power."

He prefers to sit rather than to move, exactly as the Muscular prefers to be "up and doing" rather than to sit still.

The Man of Futile Movements

Did you ever look on while a pure Cerebral man tried to move a kitchen stove? Ever ask the dreamer in your house to bring down a trunk from the attic?

Will you ever forget the almost human perversity with which that stove and that trunk resisted him; or how amusing it looked to see a grown man outwitted at every turn by an inert mass?

"I have carried on a life-long feud with inanimate things," a pure Cerebral friend remarked to us recently. "I have a fight on my hands every time I attempt to use a pair of scissors, a knife and fork, a hammer or a collar button."

His Jerky Walk

Because he is short the Cerebral takes short steps. Because he lacks muscle he lacks a powerful stride. As a result he has a walk that is irregular and sometimes jerky.

When he walks slowly this jerk is not apparent, but when hurried it is quite noticeable.

Is Lost in Chairs

The Cerebral gets lost in the same chair that is itself lost under the large, spreading Osseous; and for the same reason. Built for the average, chairs are as much too large for the Cerebral as they are too small for the big bony man. So the Cerebral's legs dangle and his arms don't reach.

Dislikes Social Life

Though a most sympathetic friend, the Cerebral does not make many friends and does not care for many. He is too abstract to add to the gaiety of social gatherings, for these are based on the enjoyment of the concrete.

Enjoys the Intellectuals

Readers, thinkers, writers—intellectuals like himself—are the kinds of people the Cerebral enjoys most.

Another reason why he has few friends is because these people, being in the great minority, are not easy to find.

Ignores the Ignorant

People who let others do their thinking for them and those who are not aware of the great things going on in world movements, are not popular with this type. He sometimes has a secret contempt for them and ignores them as completely as they ignore him.

Avoids the Limelight

Modesty and reserve, almost as marked in the men as in the women, characterize this extreme type. They do things of great moment sometimes—invent something or write something extraordinary—but even then they try to avoid being lionized.

They prefer the shadows rather than the spotlight. Thus they miss many of the good things less brainy and more aggressive people gain. But it does no good to explain this to a Cerebral. He enjoys retirement and is constantly missing opportunities because he refuses to "mix."

Cares Little for Money

Friends mean something to the Cerebral, fame sometimes means much but money means little. In this he is the exact opposite of the Osseous, to whom the pecuniary advantages or disadvantages of a thing are always significant.

The pure Cerebral finds it difficult to interest himself in his finances. He seldom counts his change. He will go away from his room leaving every cent he owns lying on the dresser—and then forget to lock the door!

This type of person almost never asks for a raise. He is too busy dreaming dreams to plan what he will do in his old age. He prefers staying at the same job with congenial associates to finding another even if it paid more.

Very Often Poor

Since we get only what we go after in this world, it follows that the Cerebral is often poor. To make money one must want money. Competition for it is so keen that only those who want it badly and work with efficiency ever get very much of it.

The Cerebral takes so little interest in money that he gets lost in the shuffle. Not until he wakes up some morning with the poorhouse staring him in the face does he give it serious consideration. And then he does not do much about it.

Almost Never Rich

History shows that few people of the pure Cerebral type ever became rich. Even the most brilliant gave so much more thought to their mission than the practical ways and means that they were usually seriously handicapped for the funds necessary to its materialization.

Madame Curie, co-discoverer of radium, said to be the greatest living woman of this type, is world-famous and has done humanity a noble service. But her experiments were always carried on against great disadvantages because she had not the financial means to purchase more than the most limited quantities of the precious substance.

About Clothes

Clothes are almost the last thing the Cerebral thinks about. As we have seen, all the other types have decided preferences as to their clothes—the Alimentive demands comfort, the Thoracic style, the Muscular durability and the Osseous sameness—but the extreme Cerebral type says "anything will do." So we often see him with a coat of one color, trousers of another and a hat of another, with no gloves at all and his tie missing.

Often Absent-Minded

We have always said people were "absent-minded" when their minds were absent from what they were doing. This often applies to the Cerebral for he is capable of greater concentration than other types; also he is so frequently compelled to do things in which he has no interest that his mind naturally wanders to the things he cares about.

A Cerebral professor whom we know sometimes appeared before his Harvard classes in bedroom slippers. A Thoracic would not be likely to let his own brother catch him in his!

Writes Better than He Talks

The poor talker sometimes surprises us by being a good writer. Such a one is usually of the Cerebral type.

He likes to think out every phase of a thing and put it into just the right words before giving it to the world. So, many a Cerebral who does little talking outside his intimate circle does a good deal of surreptitious writing. It may be only the keeping of a diary, jotting down memoranda or writing long letters to his friends, but he will write something. Some of the world's greatest ideas have come to light first in the forgotten manuscripts of people of this type who died without showing their writings to any one. Evidently they did not consider them of sufficient importance or did not care as much about publishing them as about putting them down.

An Inveterate Reader

Step into the reference rooms of your city library on a summer's day and you will stand more chance of finding examples of this extreme type there than in any other spot.

You may have thought these extreme types are difficult to locate, since the average American is a combination. But it is easy to find any of them if you look in the right places.

In every case you will find them in the very places where a study of Human Analysis would tell you to look for them.

Where to Look for Pure Types

When you wish to find some pure Alimentives, go to a restaurant that is famous for its rich foods. When you want to see several extreme Thoracics, drop into any vaudeville show and take your choice from the actors or from the audience. When you are looking for pure Musculars go to a boxing match or a prize fight and you will be surrounded by them. When looking for the Osseous attend a convention of expert accountants, bankers, lumbermen, hardware merchants or pioneers.

All these types appear in other places and in other vocations, but they are certain to be present in large numbers any day in any of the above-named places.

But when you are looking for this interesting little extreme thinker-type you must go to a library. We specify the reference room of the library because those who search for fiction, newspapers and magazines are not necessarily of the pure type. And we specify a day in summer rather than in winter so that you will be able to select your subjects from amongst people who are there in spite of the weather rather than because of it.

Interested in Everything

"I never saw a book without wanting to read it," said a Cerebral friend to us the other day. This expresses the interest every person of this type has in the printed page. "I never see a library without wishing I had time to go there and stay till I had read everything in it."

The Book Worm

So it is small wonder that such a one becomes known early in life as a "book worm." As a little child he takes readily to reading and won't take to much else. Because we all learn quickly what we like, he is soon devouring books for older heads. "Why won't he run and play like other children?" wails Mother, and "That boy ought to be made to join the ball team," scolds Father; but "that boy" continues to keep his nose in a book.

He can talk on almost any subject—when he will—and knows pretty well what is going on in the world at an age when other boys are oblivious to everything but gymnasiums and girls.

Old for His Years

The "little old man" or "little old woman" of ten is always a Cerebral child. The Alimentives are the babies of the race and never entirely grow up no matter how many years they live. But the Cerebral is born old. From infancy he shows more maturity than other children.

The "Teacher's Pet"

His studiousness and tractableness lead to one reward in childhood, though it often costs him dear as a man. He usually becomes the teacher's favorite and no wonder: he always has his lessons, he gives her little trouble and is about all that keeps many a teacher at her poorly paid post.

Little Sense of Time

The extreme Cerebral often has a deficient sense of time. He is less conscious of the passage of the hours than any other type. The Muscular and the Osseous often have an almost uncanny time-sense, but the extreme Cerebral man often lacks it. Forgetting to wind his watch or to consult it for hours when he does, is a familiar habit of this type.

We know a bride in Detroit whose flat looked out on a bakery and a bookstore. She told us that she used to send her Cerebral hubby across the street for the loaf of bread that was found lacking just as they were ready to sit down to dinner—only to wait hours and then have him come back with a book under his arm, no bread and no realization of how long he had been gone.

Inclined to be Unorthodox

Other types tend to follow various religions—according to the individual's upbringing—but the Cerebral composes a large percentage of the unorthodox.

The Political Reformer

Because all forms of personal combat are distasteful to him the pure Cerebral does not go out and fight for reform as often as the Muscular nor die for causes as often as the Osseous types.

But almost every Cerebral believes in extreme reforms of one kind or another. He is a comparatively silent but faithful member of clubs, leagues and other kinds of reform organizations. He may never star in them. He seldom cares to. But his mite is always ready when subscriptions are taken, even if he has to go without breakfast for a week to make up for it.

This type is usually sufficiently intelligent to know the world needs reforming and sufficiently conscientious to want to help to do it. He is not bound by traditions or customs as much as other types but does more of his own thinking. Without the foresight and faithfulness of the Cerebrals very few reforms could have started or have lived to finish.

The Social Nonconformist

Ask any small-bodied, large-headed man if he believes in the double standard of morals, anti-suffrage, eternal punishment, saloons, or the "four hundred!" This little man with the big head may not openly challenge you or argue with you when you stand up for "things as they are," for he is a peaceable chap—but he inwardly smiles or sneers at what he considers your troglodyte ideas. He sees a day coming when babies will be named for their fathers whether the minister officiated or not; when the man who now talks about the "good old days of a wide open saloon on every corner" will himself be a hazy myth; and when society idlers will not be considered better than people who earn their livings.

The World's Pathfinder

The Cerebral therefore leads the world in ideas. The world is managed by fat men, entertained by florid men, built by muscular men, opposed by bony men, but is improved in the final analysis by its thinking men.

These thinkers have a difficult time of it. They preach to deaf ears. And often they die in poverty. But at last posterity comes around to their way of thinking, abandons the old ruts and follows the trails they have blazed. Therefore many great thinkers who were unknown while alive became famous after death. More often than not, "Fame is the food of the tomb."

Indifference to Surroundings

A wise man it was who said, "Let me see a man's surroundings and I will tell you what he is." The Cerebral does not really live in his house but in his head, and for that reason does not feel as great an urge to decorate, amplify or even furnish the place in which he dwells.

Step into the room of any little-bodied large-headed man and you will be struck by two facts—that he has fewer jimcracks and more journals lying around than the rest of your friends.

In the room of the Alimentive you will find cushions, sofas and "eats;" in that of the Thoracic you will find colorful, unusual things; the Muscular will have durable, solid, plain things; the Osseous will have fewer of everything but what he does have will be in order.

But the pure Cerebral's furnishings—if he is responsible for them—will be an indifferent array, with no two pieces matching. Furthermore, everything will be piled with newspapers, magazines, books and clippings.

Often Die Young

"The good die young" is an old saying which may or may not be true. But there is no doubt that the extreme Cerebral type of individual often dies at an early age.

The reason is clear. An efficient but controlled assimilative system is the first requisite for long life, and the pure Cerebral does not have an efficient one. Moreover, he is prone to neglect what nutritive mechanism he does have, by irregular eating, by being too poor to afford wholesome foods, and by forgetting to eat at all.

Physical Assets

By reason of his deficient physicality the Cerebral can not be said to possess any decided physical assets. But two tendencies which help decidedly to prolong life are under-eating and his refusal to dissipate.

It has been said many times by the best known experts that "more deaths are caused annually in America by over-eating than by any other two causes." Under-eating is a very necessary precaution but the Cerebral carries it too far.

The Cerebral, lacking a large alimentary system, is not tempted to overload his stomach or overtax his vital organs. And because he is a highly evolved type, possessing little of the instincts which are at the bottom of most dissipation, he is not addicted to late hours, wine, women or excitement.

Diseases He is Most Susceptible To

Nervous diseases of all kinds most frequently afflict this type. His nervous system is supersensitive. It breaks down more easily and more completely than that of the more elemental types, just as a high-powered car is more easily wrecked than a truck.

Music He Likes

"Highbrow" music is kept alive mostly by highbrows. While the other types cultivate a taste for grand opera or simulate it because it is supposedly proper, the Cerebral really enjoys it. In the top gallery at any good concert you will find many Cerebrals.

Entertainment He Prefers

The serious drama and educational lectures are other favorite entertainments of the Cerebral. He cares little for vaudeville, girl-shows, or clap-trap farces.

The kind of program that keeps the fat man's smile spread from ear to ear takes the Cerebral to the box office for his money.

A Steady Patron at the Movies

The Cerebral goes to the movies more than any other type save the fat man, but not for the same reasons. The large-brained, small-bodied man cares nothing for most of the recreations with which the other types amuse themselves, so the theater is almost his only diversion. It is oftentimes the only kind of entertainment within the reach of his purse; and it deals with many different subjects, in almost all of which the pure Cerebral has some interest.

Don't Laugh at Same Things

But if you will notice next time you go to a movie it will be clear to you that the fat people and the large-headed people do not laugh at the same things. The pie-throwing and Cutey Coquette that convulse the two-hundred-pounder fail to so much as turn up the corners of the other man's mouth.

And the subtle things that amuse the Cerebral go over the heads of the pure Alimentives.

Cares for No Sports

But the fat man and the large-brained man have one trait in common. Neither of them cares for strenuous sports. The fat man dislikes them because he is too "heavy on his feet." The Cerebral dislikes them because he is too heavy at the opposite extremity. He expends what little energy he has in mental activities so has none left for violent physical exertion.

Likes Mental Games

This type enjoys quiet games requiring thought. Chess and checkers are favorites with them.

The Impersonal

The Cerebral is the most impersonal of all types. While the Alimentive tends to measure everything from the standpoint of what it can do for him personally, the Cerebral tends to think more impersonally and to be interested in many things outside of his own affairs.

Lacks Pugnacity

Primitive things of every kind are distasteful to the Cerebral. The instincts of digestion, sex, hunting and pugnacity are but little developed in him. He is therefore a man who likes harmony, avoids coming to blows, and goes out of his way to keep the peace. Such a man does not go hunting and seldom owns a gun. He dislikes to kill or harm any creature.

The Cleverest Crook

The Cerebral is usually a naturally moral person. But when lacking in conscience, either through bad training or other causes, he occasionally turns to crime for his income. This is because his physical frailty makes it difficult for him to do heavy work, while his mentality enables him to think out ways and means of getting a living without it.

Though the clumsy criminal may belong to any type, the cleverest crooks—those who defy detection for years—always have a large element of the Cerebral in their makeup.

Big Brains in Little Jobs

There are two kinds of work in the world—head work and hand work; mental and manual. If you can star in either, life guarantees you a good living. But if you are good at neither you are doomed to dependence. The Cerebral's physical frailty unfits him for the manual and unless he is school-or self-educated he becomes the sorriest of all human misfits. He falls between the two and leads a precarious existence working in the lighter indoor positions requiring the least mentality. If you will keep your eyes open you will many times note that the little waiter in the high class restaurant or hotel has a head very large for his body. Such men are much better read, have a far greater appreciation of art and literature and more natural refinement than the porky patrons they serve.

Social Assets

A fine sense of the rights of others and natural modesty and refinement are the chief social assets of this type.

Social Liabilities

Lack of self-expression, too great reserve and too much abstractness in conversation are the things that handicap the Cerebral. His small stature and timid air also add to his appearance of insignificance and cause him to be overlooked at social affairs.

Emotional Assets

Sympathy, gentleness and self-sacrifice are other assets of this type.

Emotional Liabilities

A tendency to nervous excitement and to a lack of balance are the chief emotional handicaps of this type.

Business Assets

This type has no traits which can properly be called business assets. He dislikes business, is repelled by its standards and has no place in any of its purely commercial branches.

Business Liabilities

His inability to "keep his feet on the ground," and his tendency to "live in the clouds" and to be generally impractical unfit this type for business life.

Domestic Strength

Tenderness, consideration and idealism are the chief domestic assets of the Cerebral type.

Domestic Weakness

Inability to provide for his family, incapacity for making the money necessary to meet their needs, and his tendency to spend the little he does have on impossible schemes, are what wreck the domestic life of many splendid Cerebral men. Her inability to make one dollar do the work of two is a serious handicap to the Cerebral wife or mother.

Should Aim At

This man should aim at building up his body and practicalizing his mental processes.

Should Avoid

The Cerebral should avoid shallow, ignorant people, speculation and those situations that carry him farther away from the real world.

His Strong Points

His thinking capacity, progressiveness, unselfishness, and highly civilized instincts are the strongest points of this type.

His Weakest Points

Impracticality, dreaminess, physical frailty and his tendency to plan without doing, are the traits which stand in the way of his success.

How to Deal with this Type Socially

Don't expect him to be a social lion. Don't expect him to mingle with many. Invite him when there are to be a few congenial souls, and if he wanders into the library leave him alone.

How to Deal with this Type in Business

Don't employ this man for heavy manual labor or where there is more arm work than head work. Give him mental positions or none.

If you are dealing with him as a tradesman, resist the temptation to take advantage of his impracticality and don't treat him as if you thought money was everything.

Remember, the chief distinguishing marks of the Cerebral, in the order of their importance, are the HIGH FOREHEAD and a PROPORTIONATELY LARGE HEAD FOR THE BODY. Any person who has these is largely of the Cerebral type no matter what other types may be included in his makeup.

To Understand Combinations

Determine which type PREDOMINATES in a subject.

If there is any doubt in your mind about this do these four things:

1st. Note the body build—which one of the five body types (as shown in Charts 1, 3, 5, 7, 9) does he most resemble? (In doing this it will aid you if you will note whether fat, bone or muscle predominates in his bodily structure.)

2nd. Decide which of the five typical faces his face most resembles.

3rd. Decide which of the five typical hands his hands most resemble.

4th. If still undecided, note his voice, gestures and movements and they will leave no doubt in your mind as to which of these types comes first and which second.

Having decided which type predominates and which is second in him, the significance of this combination is made clear to you by the following law:

Law of Combination

The type PREDOMINATING in a person determines WHAT he does throughout his life—the NATURE of his main activities.

The type which comes second in development will determine the WAY he does things—the METHODS he will follow in doing what his predominant type signifies.

The third element, if noticeable, merely "flavors" his personality.

Thus, a Cerebral-Muscular-Alimentive does MENTAL things predominantly throughout his life, but in a more MUSCULAR way than if he were an extreme Cerebral. The Alimentive element, being third down the list, will tend to make him eat and assimilate more food than he otherwise would.


Types That Should and Should Not Marry Each Other

"I am so sorry to hear the Browns are being divorced. I have known George and Mary for years and they are as fine a man and woman as I ever saw. But they just don't seem able to get along together."

How many times you have heard something like this. And the speaker got nearer the truth than he knew. For the Georges and Marys everywhere are, on the whole, fine men and women.

Married to the Wrong One

Each one is all right in himself, but merely married to the wrong person—a fact we have recognized when both George and Mary made successes of their second ventures and lived happily ever after.

Human happiness, as we have noted in the introduction to this volume, is attained only through doing what the organism was built to do, in an environment that is favorable. Marriage is only the attempt of two people to attain these two ends individually, mutually and simultaneously.

Difficulties of Double Harness

Now, since it is almost impossible for one to achieve happiness when untrammeled and free, is it to be wondered at that so few achieve it in double harness? For the difficulties to be surmounted are doubled and the helps are halved by the presence of a running mate.

Mere Marriedness is not Mating

That "two can live on less than one" is not true—but it is nearer the truth than that two can find ultimate happiness together easier than either can find an approximation of happiness alone.

This is not saying that any one who is unmated can have happiness as complete as that which comes to the rightly mated—for nothing else in life can compare with that—but they must be RIGHTLY MATED, not merely married.

No one who has observed or thought on this subject will deny that it is a thousand times better not to be married at all than to be married to the wrong person.

Secrets Told by Statistics

Surveys of the causes for divorce during the past ten years in the United States have revealed some startling facts—facts which only prove again that Human Analysis shows us the truth about ourselves as no science has ever shown it to us before.

One of the most illuminating facts these surveys have revealed is that only those men and women can be happy together whose natures automatically encourage each other in the doing of the things each likes to do, in the way each likes to do them.

Inborn inclination determines the things every human being prefers to do, concerning all the fundamental activities of his life, and also the manner in which he prefers to do them. These inborn inclinations, as we have previously pointed out, are written all over us in the unmistakable language of type.

When we know a man's type we know what things he prefers to do in life's main experiences and how he prefers to do them. And we know that unless he is permitted to do approximately what he wants to do in approximately the way he prefers, he becomes unhappy and unsuccessful.

Infatuation No Guide

These biological bents are so deeply embedded in every individual that no amount of affection, admiration, or respect, or passion for any other individual suffices to enable any one to go through long years doing what he dislikes and still be happy. Only in the first flush of infatuation can he sacrifice his own preferences for those of another.

After a while passion and infatuation ooze away. Nature sees to that, just as she sees to their coming in the first place. Then there return the old leanings, preferences, tendencies and cravings inherent in the type of each.

The Real "Reversion to Type"

Under this urge of his type each reverts gradually but irresistibly to his old habits, doing largely what he prefers to do in the ways that are to his liking. When that day comes the real test of their marriage begins. If the distance between them is too great they can not cross that chasm, and thereafter each lives a life inwardly removed from the other.

They make attempts to cross the barrier and some of these are successful for a short while. They talk to and fro across the void sometimes; but their communings become less frequent, their voices less distinct, until at last each withdraws into himself. There he lives, in the world of his own nature—as completely separated from his mate as though they dwelt on different planets.

We Can Know

"But how is one to know the right person?" you ask. By recognizing science's recent discovery to the effect that certain types can travel helpfully, happily and harmoniously together and that certain others never can.

What Every Individual Owes to Himself

Every individual owes it to himself to find the right work and the right mate, because these are fundamental needs of every human being.

Lacking them, life is a failure; possessing but one of them, life is half a failure.

To obtain and apply the very fullest knowledge toward the attainment of these two great requisites should be the aim of every person.

Neglected Subjects

Despite the fact that these are the most vital problems pertaining to human happiness and that every individual's life depends for its glory or defeat, joy or sorrow upon the right settlement of them—they are two of the most neglected.

Divorce Courts

Our divorce courts are full of splendid men and women who are there not because they are weak or wrong, but because they stepped into nature's age-old Instinct trap without realizing where it would lead them.

These men and women who pay so heavy a price for their ignorance and blindness are not to blame. Most of them have been taught that to be legally bound together was sufficient guarantee of marital bliss.

But experience has shown us that there are certain kinds of people each individual can associate with in harmony and that there are those with whom he could never be happy though a hundred ministers pronounced them mated for life.

Times Will Change

But the time is coming when we will select our mates scientifically, not merely sentimentally. It is also coming when we will know what every child is fitted to do by looking at him, just as we know better today than to set a shepherd dog on the trail of criminals or a bloodhound to herd sheep.

The Great Quest

Instead of beclouding the significance and the sanity of life's great quest; instead of encouraging every manner of mismating as we do today, we will some day arm our children with knowledge enabling them to wisely choose their life work and their life mate.

Dolly's Dimple

The fact that Dolly has a dimple may make your senses whirl but it is not sufficient basis for marriage. There are things of vastly greater importance, though of course this does not seem possible to you at the time.

Sammy's Smile

And though Sammy sports a smile the gods might envy, he may not be the right man for Dolly. Even a smile that never comes off, great lubricator that it undeniably is, is not sufficient foundation for a "till-death-do-us-part" contract.

Little Things vs. Big Things

When we hear of a divorce we assume that it was caused by the inability of those two people to agree upon fundamentals. We suppose that they found within themselves wide divergences of opinion, feeling or attitude regarding really worth while questions—social, religious, political or economic. We are inclined to imagine that "the little things" should take care of themselves and that only the "big things" such as these should be allowed to separate two lives, once they have been joined together.

What the Records Show

Yet the exact opposite is what happens, according to the divorce records of the United States.

These records show that divorces do not arise out of differences in what we have always called the big things of life, but out of those things which we have always called the little ones.

Why He Can't Change

We do not expect a husband or wife to change his religion and take on his partner's faith. We imagine this is an inherent thing more or less deeply imbedded in him and not to be altered, while we consider it only fair and right for John to give up his favorite sport, his hobby and some of his habits for Mary's sake.

At the risk of shocking the supersensitive, it must be admitted that most individuals get their religious leanings from external sources—parents, teachers, ministers, friends and especially by the accident of being born in a certain country, among a certain sect or within a certain community.

On the other hand, one's preferences in the matter of diversions are born in him, part and parcel of his very being and remain so to the end of his life. Accordingly, just as it is easier to change the frosting on a cake than to change the inside, it is easier to change a man's religion than to change his activities.

Diversion and Divorce

Most of the divorces granted in America during the past ten years have been demanded, not on grounds dealing with the so-called fundamentals, but for differences regarding so-called unimportant things. And more than seventy out of every hundred divorces every year in this country are asked for on grounds pertaining to diversion.

In other words, more than seventy per cent of American divorces are granted because husbands and wives can not adapt themselves to each other in the matter of how they shall spend their LEISURE hours.

"People who can not play together will not work together long," said Elbert Hubbard. Human Analysis, which shows that each type tends automatically to the doing of certain things in certain ways whenever free to act, proves that this is just as literal as it sounds.

The only time we are free to act is during our leisure hours. All other hours are mortgaged to earning a living—in the accomplishment of which we often have very little outlet for natural trends. So it is only "after hours" and "over Sundays" that the masses of mankind have an opportunity to express their real natures.

Uncongenial Work Affects Marriage

The less one's work permits him to do the things he enjoys the more surely will he turn to them in the hours when this restraint is removed. If such a one has a husband or wife who encourages him in the following of his natural bents during leisure hours, that marriage stands a big chance of being happy.

These two people may differ widely in their respective religious ideas—one may be a Catholic, the other a Protestant, or one a Shaker and the other a Christian Scientist—but they can build lasting happiness together.

On the other hand, two people who agree perfectly as to religious, social and political views but who can not agree as to the disposition of their leisure hours are bound for the rocks.

As the honeymoon fades, each reverts to the kind of recreation congenial to his type. If his mate is averse to his diversions each goes his own way.

The Eternal Triangle

The tragedy of "the other man" and "the other woman" is not a mystery to him who understands Human Analysis. It is always the result of finding some one of kindred standards and tastes—that is, some one whose type is congenial. The Eternal Triangle arises again and again in human lives, not accidentally, but as the inevitable result of violating inexorable laws.

Law of Marital Happiness


The application of the law to each of the five types will be explained in the following sections of this chapter.

* * * * *

Part One


Just as each type reacts differently to all the other situations in life, each reacts differently to love.

The Alimentive, as we have pointed out, is less mature than the other types, with the Thoracic next, and so on down to the Cerebral which is the most mature of all. Because the Alimentive has rightly been called "the baby of the race;" because no extremely fat person ever really grows up, this type prefers those love-expressions natural to the immature.

The Most Affectionate Type

Caressing, petting, fondling and cuddling—those demonstrations not of wild passion but of affection such as children enjoy—are most often used by Alimentive men and women when in love.

Because they are inclined to bestow little attentions more or less promiscuously, they often get the reputation of being flirtatious when they are not. Such actions also are often taken by the one to whom they are directed as indicating more than the giver means.

So beware of taking the little pats of fat people too seriously. They mean well, but have the baby's habit of bestowing innocent smiles and caresses everywhere.

Why They are Loved

Each type has traits peculiar to itself which tend to make others fall in love with it. In the Alimentive the outstanding trait which wins love is his sweet disposition.

The human ego is so constituted that we tend to like all interesting people who do not offer us opposition. The Alimentive is amenable, affable, agreeable. His ready smile, his tendency to promote harmony and his general geniality bring him love and keep it for him while more clever types lose it.

Millionaires Marry Them

"Why does a brilliant business man marry that little fat woman who is not his equal mentally?" the world has asked many a time. Human Analysis answers it, as it answers so many of the other age-long queries about human eccentricities.

The little fat woman has a sweet disposition—one of the most soothing of human attributes. The business man has enough of "brilliant" people all day. When he gets home he is rather inclined to be merely the "tired business man," and in that state nothing is more agreeable than a wife with a smile.

As for fat husbands, many a wife supports them in preference to being supported by another and less agreeable man.

The Prettiest Type

When a woman becomes engaged her friends all inquire, "What does he do?" but when a man's engagement is announced every one asks, "What does she look like?" So it is small wonder that men have placed prettiness near the top of the list, and the Alimentive woman is the prettiest of all types. This little fact must not be overlooked when searching for the causes which have prompted so many of the world's wealthiest men to marry them. Other men may have to content themselves with plain wives, but the man of means can pick and choose—and every man prefers a pretty wife to a plain one.

Feminine prettiness (not beauty) consists of the rose-bud mouth, the baby eyes, the cute little nose, the round cheeks, the dimpled chin, etc.—all more or less monopolized by the Alimentive type.

The "Womanly" Type

The fat woman's refusal to worry keeps the wrinkles away and as long as she does not become obese she remains attractive. Her "clinging-vine" ways make men call her the most "womanly" type, and even when she tips the scales at two hundred and fifty they are still for her. Then they say "she looks so motherly."

So the fat woman goes through life more loved by men than any other type, and in old age she presents a picture of calmness and domestic serenity that is appealing to everybody.

Marry Earliest and Oftenest

Being in demand, the Alimentive woman marries earlier than any other type. As a widow the same demand takes her off the marriage market while younger and brainier women pine their lives away in spinsterhood.

Look back and you will recall that it was the pretty, plump girls who had beaux earliest, married earliest, and who, even when left with several children, did not remain widows long.

Desirable Traits of Alimentive Wives

Next to her sweet disposition, the traits which make the Alimentive wife most pleasant to get along with are serenity, optimism and good cooking.

Her Weaknesses

Many an Alimentive wife loses her husband's love because of her too easy-going habits. Unless controlled, these lead to slovenliness in personal appearance and housekeeping.

The Alimentive Wife and Money

The Alimentive wife usually has her share of the family income because she has the endearing ways that wring it out of hubby.

Sales people everywhere say, "We like to see a fat woman coming, for she usually has money, spends it freely and is easy to please."

In Disagreements

What they do with their quarrels after they are through with them determines to a great extent the ultimate success of any pair's marriage. Alimentive husbands and wives bury the hatchet sooner than other types and they avoid altercations.

Lives Anywhere

The Alimentive wife offers less resistance to her husband's plans than any other. So when he announces they are moving to some other neighborhood, city or state she acquiesces with better grace than other types.

Family Friends

The responsibility of adding new friends to the family rests equally upon each partner in marriage. The average husband, by reason of mingling more with the world, has the greater opportunity, but every wife can and should consider that she owes it to herself, her husband and her children to contribute her quota.

Alimentive husbands and wives add their share of new acquaintances to any marriage in which they are partners. The Alimentive wife always enjoys having people in to dinner and the Alimentive husband enjoys bringing them. The warmth of hospitality in Alimentive homes brings them more friendships than come to other types.

Fat Man Also Marries Young

The fat man marries young, but for a different reason than the fat woman. The fat man, as you will note, "gets a job" early in life. From that time on his services seldom go begging.

He makes a good salary earlier than other types and is therefore sooner in a position to marry.

The "Ladies' Man"

Just as the fat woman is "a man's woman," so the fat man is almost invariably "a ladies' man." The fat man usually "knows women" better than any other type and it is certain that the fat woman "knows men." Her record proves it.

No Fat Bachelors

Just as there are few fat "old maids," there are few fat bachelors. You can count on the fingers of one hand all the really overweight ones you ever knew.

The Best "Provider"

Because he makes money easily through the various forms of his superior business qualifications, the average fat man has plenty of money for his family and likes to spend it upon them. He is the best provider of all the types. Fat people are the most lenient parents and usually over-indulge their children.

The husband who makes a habit for years of sending home crates of the first strawberries, melons and oranges of the season is a fat one every time.

Desirable Traits of Fat Husbands

His generous provision for his family and the fact that he is essentially a "family man" are two desirable traits of the Alimentive husband. He depends more on his home than other types, he marries young to have a home and he is seldom farther away from it than he has to be.

It is unfortunate that the one type which makes the best "travelling man" is more inconvenienced by the absence from home than any other type would be. But he has not submitted silently. All the world knows what a "hard life" the traveling salesman leads and how he misses "the wife, the kids and the good home cooking."

Weaknesses of Alimentive Husbands

The Alimentive husband has but one weakness that materially endangers his marital happiness. He is inclined to be too easy and extravagant, and not to save money.

Mates for Alimentives

Because of his amenability the Alimentive can marry almost any type and be happy. But for fullest happiness, those who are predominantly Alimentive—that is, those in whom the Alimentive type comes first—should marry, as a first choice, those who are predominantly Muscular. The Muscular shares the Alimentive's ambition to "get on in the world" and at the same time adds to the union the practicality which offsets the too easy-going, lackadaisical tendencies of the Alimentive.

The second choice for the predominantly Alimentive should be the one who is predominantly Thoracic. These two types have much in common. The brilliance and speed of the Thoracic keeps the Alimentive "looking to his laurels," and thus tends to prevent the carelessness which is so great a handicap to the predominantly Alimentive.

The third choice of the predominantly Alimentive may be one who is also predominantly Alimentive, but in that case it should be an Alimentive-Muscular or an Alimentive-Cerebral.

The last type the pure Alimentive should ever marry is the pure Cerebral.

* * * * *

Part Two


The Thoracic in love exhibits the same general traits which characterize him in all his other relationships.

The Most Beautiful Woman

The Thoracic woman is the most beautiful type of all. She is not "pretty" like the Alimentive, but her refined features and beautiful coloring give her a distinctive appearance.

The Handsomest Man

The Thoracic is also the handsomest man of all. He is tall, high-chested, wide-shouldered and has the masculine face resulting from his high-bridged, prominent nose and high cheek bones.

The Thoracic Charmer

The Thoracic has more of that quality we call "charm" than any other type. Charm is largely self-expression by tactful methods. Since this type is the most self-expressive and the most tactful it possesses naturally this invaluable trait.

Both men and women of this type have an elusive, attractive something in their personalities that others do not have—a very personal appeal that makes an immediate impression. It pierces farther beneath the surface of strangers than other types do on much longer acquaintance. The Thoracic does not seem a stranger at all. His own confidences, given to you almost immediately upon meeting you, remove the barriers.

The Lure of the Thoracic

There is about the Thoracic person a lure that others seldom have. You do not attempt to describe it. You say "he is just different," and he is. No other type has his spontaneity and instantaneous responsiveness.

So while the Alimentive is always liked, it is in a more mild, easy, comfortable way. The Alimentive does not stir the blood but has a strong, tender, even hold on people. The Thoracic, on the other hand, intrigues your attention, impales it, and holds it.

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