Among the Mushrooms - A Guide For Beginners
by Ellen M. Dallas and Caroline A. Burgin
Previous Part     1  2
Home - Random Browse

PHOLIOTA ADIPOSA = fat. The Stout Pholiota.

Cap bright yellowish or orange color, 3 to 7 inches broad, convex, then flattened, gibbous, that is, more convex on one side than on the other; viscid, covered with woolly (floccose) scales, which often separate. Flesh whitish. Stem 3 to 6 inches long, 1/2 to 1 inch thick, solid, large at base, first white and then light yellow, with darker scales. Ring yellow, and then ironrust color (ferruginous.) Gills adnate, slightly rounded, broad at first, yellow and then darker. We were driving through a thick woods when we saw the bright yellow cap of this mushroom peering among the bushes. There was no apparent ring and few scales except on the margin. It was irregularly shaped, fleshy and thick. It was not a typical specimen, and a beginner would have found it difficult to name. The then recent hard rains had washed nearly all the scales from the cap, and the ring was hardly to be seen. It grew on the trunk of a tree in the month of September. Not edible.

PHOLIOTA SPECTABILIS = showy. The Showy Pholiota.

This Pholiota was found much later in the season. Cap is from 2 to 5 inches broad, a golden yellow, then growing paler, fleshy, torn into squamules, dry, flesh thick, hard, sulphur yellow. Stem about 3 inches long and 1 inch thick, solid, hard, swollen in the middle, and extending into a spindle-shaped root. It is sometimes smooth and shining and sometimes scaly, sulphur yellow color and mealy above the ring. Gills adnate, crowded, narrow, at first pure yellow and afterward ironrust color. Gills have sometimes a small decurrent tooth (Stevenson), but our specimen had none. It grew together (caespitose) on a stump. Not edible.

MARASMIUS OREADES = a mountain nymph. The Fairy Ring Mushroom.

Cap when young and moist is of a pale yellowish-red, but fades when dry to pale yellow. It is from 1 to 2 inches broad, fleshy, tough, convex, then plane, somewhat umbonate, even, smooth, slightly striate at margin when moist. Stem 1 to 2 inches long and less than 1/4 inch thick; slender, solid, tough, equal, sometimes cartilaginous, straight, covered with a close woven skin that can be rubbed off. Gills free or slightly attached, whitish or creamy yellow, broad, distant, the alternate ones shorter, rounded, or deeply notched at inner end. These mushrooms grow in circles and are called fairy rings. They are found chiefly on lawns and pastures from May till October. We saw one specimen in October. It grew in a waste lot at Kaighn's Point, Camden, N.J. It was solitary, of a brownish-yellow color, the cap 1 inch broad, and the stem 1 inch long. It was growing amidst some ballast plants, the only mushroom there.

COPRINUS MICACEUS = mica. The Glistening Coprinus.

Cap varies from buff to tawny yellow, 1 to 2 inches broad, bell-shaped (campanulate) or conical (cone-shaped), thin, marked with lengthwise lines, which extend half-way up from the margin. The disc is even and is more highly colored. It is often sprinkled with shiny atoms when young. Gills at first whitish, then brown or black. Stem 1 to 3 inches long, slender, hollow and white. The spores are dark brown. We found it in great numbers growing on the ground amidst the grass in September and October. It may be seen as early as April. It is a pretty species. (Edible.)


AMANITA STROBILIFORMIS = a pine cone. The Warted Amanita.

Cap light gray, or dingy white when young; 7 to 9 inches broad when expanded fully. It is covered with large pyramidal, persistent warts. The margin is even, and extends beyond the gills. Flesh firm and white. Stem 6 to 8 inches long, 1 to 3 inches thick, solid, scaly, tapering upward, with a bulbous base and marked with a series of rings near the root, which extends deep into the ground. Ring large, torn. Gills white, free, rounded near the stem, 3/8 inch broad. This is said to be rather rare. We found it twice in August growing solitary on the roadside in the grass. It was large-sized, measuring 7 inches across cap, of a grayish-white color, with prominent warts; the stem was mealy, the volva was large. It was marked with distinct rings near the base. When kept many hours the smell becomes disagreeable. The name is given on account of the shape of the warts, which are conspicuous.

AMANITA VAGINATA = a sheath. The Sheathed Mushroom.

Cap gray, mouse color, sometimes slate-colored gray, and even brownish, 2 to 4 inches broad. It is thin and fragile, convex, and then nearly flat, with a slight mound or umbo, but sometimes none. It is deeply striate or grooved (sulcate) on the margin. Stem is white and often covered with mealy particles. It is slender, either hollow or stuffed, 3 to 5 inches long, 1/3 to 1/2 inch thick. It is not bulbous, but is sheathed quite high in a loose, soft wrapper, the remains of the volva. There is no ring. Gills are whitish, free from the stem, and rounded. It is easily broken. There are several varieties (Peck). In one the plant is white, Var. alba. In Var. livida the cap is a leaden brownish color, and in the Var. fulva the cap is tawny yellow and ochraceous. The mouse-colored form is the most common. We found many specimens in July and August.

CORTINARIUS CORRUGATUS = wrinkled. The Wrinkled Cortinarius.

Cap gray, with a pinkish-yellowish tint, 2 inches broad, campanulate, sticky, broken up into squamules, pellicle scaling, margin thin. Stem slender, 5 inches long, shiny, mealy at apex, slightly bulbous. Gills gray color, adnexed, distant, ventricose. This is a pretty mushroom. The shade of color of the pileus is delicate. We found it in August in the woods.

BOLETUS FELLEUS = bitter. The Bitter Boletus.

This Boletus varies much in color; our plant was a brownish-gray, a dingy color. Cap 3 to 8 inches broad, convex or nearly plane, glabrous, even, flesh white, turning to flesh or pink color when wounded. Taste bitter, tubes adnate, long, depressed around the stem, crowded. Stem variable, 2 to 4 inches long, about 1/2 to 1 inch thick, equal or tapering, reticulated above, bulbous or enlarged at base, a little paler than the pileus. The Boleti we found grew in great numbers, in different localities, and were of all sizes. The color of the reticulations was a brownish-gray.

BOLETUS GRISEUS = gray. The Gray Boletus.

Cap dark gray, 2 to 4 inches broad, broadly convex, smooth, soft, silky, flesh whitish. Tubes adnate, slightly depressed, mouths small. Stem 2 to 4 inches long, 3 to 6 lines thick, yellowish, much reticulated, sometimes reddish toward the base. Our plant was of a brownish color at base, and grew in the month of September.

PSALLIOTA CAMPESTRIS = a field. The Common Mushroom.

There are several edible species of the genus Psalliota, chiefly the Field or Common Mushroom, which is constantly seen on our tables. Cap varies from white and gray to brown. It is 2 to 4 inches broad, fleshy, convex, then flattened, dry, sometimes covered with silky fibrils, and when old smooth. The margin of the cap generally extends beyond the gills. Flesh white. Stem rather short, 1 to 3 inches long, 1/3 to 2/3 inch thick, white or whitish, slender, stuffed and then hollow, nearly even. Ring distant, simple. Gills free, ventricose, narrowing at both ends, thin, first a pink color, then afterward brown or blackish-brown. It grows in rich pastures or in meadows, and is found in autumn. It has a most delicious flavor.

AGARICUS PLACOMYCES. The Flat-capped Mushroom.

Cap a whitish-gray, about 3 inches broad, convex, and then expanded and flat. It is covered with small, distinct, brown, persistent scales, except on the disc, where they are so close together that they appear of a brown color. Stem is long and slender, 3 inches and more, stuffed and then hollow, equal and bulbous at the base. It is whitish, but sometimes has yellowish stains toward the base. Gills are first white, then pink, and lastly a blackish-brown. It grows under trees, and is found in summer and autumn.


Cap gray or grayish-brown, smooth, except a slight scaly appearance on the disc. It is silky near the margin, and the margin is irregular. When young it is often egg-shaped. Gills crowded, whitish, soon becoming brown and then deliquescent. Stem smooth, hollow, white. It grows in clusters until late in the autumn. We found our plants on a lawn in great profusion in the month of October.

PLUTEUS CERVINUS = a deer. The Fawn-colored Pluteus.

Cap about 3 inches broad, whitish-gray color, at first bell-shaped, then expanded, smooth, even, but afterward broken up into fibrils, margin entire; flesh soft, white. Stem 3 to 6 inches long, nearly equal and solid, whitish, striate with black fibrils. Gills rounded behind, free, crowded, ventricose, white, then flesh color as the spores mature. This is a common species, appearing early in the season—April to November. It usually grows from stumps and old logs. It can be easily known by its gills, being quite free from the stem, where it joins the pileus.


RUSSULA VIRESCENS = green. The Greenish Russula.

Cap of a grayish-green color. It is 2 to 4 inches broad, dry and broken up into small warts, the margin straight, obtuse, even; flesh white. Stem 2 inches long and 1/2 inch thick, solid, spongy inside, firm, white, sometimes marked with lines (rivulose.) Gills free, whitish, narrowed toward the stem, somewhat crowded, sometimes equal and forked, with a few shorter ones between. It is easily distinguished by the dull green pileus, being without a cuticle, and scaly in the form of patches. It is found in woods in July and September. We have not seen a specimen of R. virescens, so have used Stevenson's description. Edible, taste mild.

RUSSULA FURCATA = a fork. The Forked Russula.

Cap from 3 to 5 inches broad, of an olive green color, sometimes greenish umber, covered with a silky bloom, fleshy, gibbous, then plano-depressed and funnel-shaped, cuticle here and there separable; margin at first inflexed, then spreading. Flesh firm, thick, white. Stem 2 to 3 inches long, solid, firm, stout, white. Gills adnato-decurrent, thick, distant, broad, narrowed at both ends, often forked, white. Our specimen was 5 inches broad, and the margin slightly striate, and when the cuticle was removed it was purplish underneath. It was found in August, in woods. Poisonous, taste bitter.


AMANITA VIROSA = poison. The Poisonous Amanita.

Cap shining white, from 2 1/2 to 4 inches broad, fleshy, at first conical and acute, afterward bell-shaped and expanded, viscous in wet weather, shining when dry, margin even, sometimes unequal, spreading and inflexed, flesh white. Stem 4 to 6 inches long, wholly stuffed, almost solid, split up into lengthwise fibrils, cylindrical from a bulbous base, surface torn into scales, springing from a loose, thick, wide volva which bursts open at apex. Ring large, loose, silky, splitting into pieces. Gills free, thin, a little broader toward margin, crowded, not decurrent, though the stem is sometimes striate. This is a poisonous species, but striking in appearance from the shining white of the whole fungus. Found in the woods in August.

AMANITA PHALLOIDES = appearance, phallus-like. The Death Cup.

This species is considered the most deadly of all the poisonous mushrooms, and yet it is one of the most beautiful. We place it in the section of white-colored mushrooms, though the cap is sometimes tinged with light yellow and delicate green. Cap 2 to 4 inches broad, ovate, campanulate, then spreading, obtuse, with a cuticle, sticky in moist weather, rarely sprinkled with one or two fragments of the volva, the margin regular, even. Stem 3 to 5 inches long, 1/2 inch thick, solid, bulbous and tapering upward, smooth, white. Ring superior, reflexed, slightly striate, swollen, white. Volva more or less buried in the ground, bursting open in a torn manner at the apex, with a loose border. Gills free, ventricose, 4 lines broad, shining white. This species, as well as A. virosa, has a fetid odor when kept. We found it oftener than any other species of Amanita.

AMANITA NITIDA = to shine. The Shining Amanita.

Cap whitish, 3 to 4 inches broad, somewhat compact, at first hemispherical, covered with angular, adhering warts, which become a dark color (fuscous.) It is dry, shining, the margin even; flesh white. Stem 3 inches long, 1 inch thick, solid, firm, with a bulb-shaped base, scaly, white. Ring superior, thin, torn, slightly striate, covered with soft weak hairs beneath, which at length disappear. Gills free, crowded, wide, nearly 1/2 inch broad, ventricose, shining white. This was also found in August. There is nothing more beautiful than these white poisonous Amanitas.

LEPIOTA NAUCINOIDES = a nut shell. The Smooth Lepiota.

Cap a clear white, with sometimes a brownish tint on the disc, 2 to 4 inches broad, smooth. Stem 1 to 3 inches long, 1/4 to 1/3 inch thick, growing thicker toward the base, as if it had a bulb, white, hollow, but stuffed with a cottony pith. Gills white, when old they assume a pinkish-brownish hue. Ring has a thick, external edge, but its inner edge is so thin that it often breaks from the stem and becomes movable. It is found in the fields, by roadsides, or in the woods, from August to November. We have not seen a specimen of this mushroom, which is said to be nearly equal to the common mushroom in edible qualities. It is considered to resemble it also in appearance, but Professor Peck says the different color of the gills when the plants are both young will distinguish them, and the thin collar and stuffed stem of L. naucinoides is also different from thick-edged ring and hollow stem of A. campestris. (Psalliota.)

LACTARIUS PIPERATUS = peppery. The Peppery Lactarius.

Cap white, 4 to 9 inches broad, fleshy, rigid, depressed in centre when young, reflexed margin, at first involute, when full grown the surface becomes funnel-shaped and regular, even, smooth, without zones; flesh white. Stem 1 to 2 inches long, 1 to 2 inches thick, solid, obese, equal or obconical, slightly covered with powder (pruinose), white. Gills decurrent, crowded, narrow, scarcely broader than one line, obtuse at edge, regularly dividing by pairs from below upward (dichotomous), curved like a bow (arcuate), then all extended upward in a straight line, white, with occasional yellow spots. The milk white, unchangeable, plentiful, and acrid. This is common in woods. The cap in one of our specimens turned yellow when old, and was slightly striate at the margin; it was dry and thick and had no odor. The flesh had a whitish-brownish tinge where the cuticle was peeled off. Found it only in August.

LACTARIUS VELLEREUS = fleece. The Fleecy Lactarius.

Cap white, 5 to 7 inches broad, fleshy, compact, convex, saucer-shaped, the margin for a long time sloping downward, with short, downy hairs (pubescent), dry, zoneless. Stem 2 to 3 inches long, 1 to 1 1/2 inch thick, stout, solid, equal, covered with innate, thin pubescence. Gills arcuate, adnato-decurrent, rather thick, acute at the edge, somewhat distant, rather broad, connected by branches, pallid, watery, white. Milk scanty, white, very bitter. It is not said to be edible. The cap tends to become a pallid, reddish tan. This description is partially taken from Stevenson. The specimen we found had the margin revolute, it was 2 1/2 inches broad, and the stem 2 inches long. The flesh was white and the cap was turning a brownish color. The stem slightly tapered toward the base. The milk was scanty and peppery. Found in the beginning of August in the woods. It resembles L. piperatus.

BOLETUS ALBUS = white. The White Boletus.

Cap white, from 1 1/2 to 3 inches broad, convex, viscid when moist, flesh white or yellowish, tubes small, nearly round (subrotund), adnate, whitish, becoming ochraceous. Stem 1 1/2 to 3 inches long, 3 to 5 lines thick, equal, white, sometimes tinged with pink near the base. We found only one specimen of the white Boletus in August. It grew in the woods. The flesh became yellow and the stem was 1 1/4 inch long, and it slightly tapered toward the base.

PLEUROTUS ULMARIUS = elm. The Elm Pleurotus.

The word pleurotus is taken from two Greek words, meaning a side and an ear. It is given on account of the stem growing in a lateral or eccentric manner. The Elm Pleurotus, so called from growing on elm trees, is considered edible. Our specimen had the cap whitish, but stained in the centre with a rusty yellowish color, 3 to 5 inches broad, thick, firm, smooth, convex, then plane. The skin was cracked in a tessellated manner. Flesh was firm and white. Stem white, 2 to 4 inches long, 1 1/2 to 3/4 inch thick, firm, smooth, a little hairy at the base, and attached eccentrically to the cap. Gills white with a yellow hue, broad, rounded near the stem, slightly adnexed and not crowded. It was found in October, and is not common.

PLEUROTUS SAPIDUS = agreeable to taste. The Palatable Pleurotus.

This species generally grows in clusters with the stem united at the base. Our specimen grew on a maple tree. The plants protruded from a large crack in the trunk of a tree, about four feet above the ground, and grew one above the other. They had not attained their full growth. During former seasons they had been seen of a large size. Pileus is from 2 to 5 inches broad, grayish-white, smooth. Caps often overlap one another. Flesh is white. Gills broad, whitish, decurrent, and often slightly connected by oblique branches. Stem is generally short and lateral. It grew in October. Professor Peck says that in edible qualities it resembles the oyster mushroom, P. ostreatus.


CORTINARIUS CINNAMOMEUS = cinnamon. The Cinnamon-colored Cortinarius.

Cap a golden brown or bright cinnamon color, 1 1/2 to 4 inches broad, umbonate, silky, shining, squamulose, with yellowish fibrils, and then smooth. Stem 2 inches long, stuffed and then hollow, thin, equal, tapering toward the base, yellowish color, as also are the flesh and the veil. Gills adnate, broad, crowded, shining reddish-brown color. Our specimen had beautiful reddish-colored gills, Var. semisanguineus (Peck). It grows in woods from August to November.

COLLYBIA ACERVATA = a heap. The Tufted Collybia.

The name of the species is derived from a Latin word meaning a heap, so called from the habit of growth. (Stevenson.) Cap tan brown color, 2 to 3 inches broad, flesh color when moist, whitish when dry, convex, then flattened, obtuse or gibbous, margin at first involute, then flattened and slightly striate. Stem 2 to 4 inches long, 1 to 2 lines thick, very hollow (fistulose), rigid, fragile, slightly tapering upward, rarely compressed, very smooth, except the base, even, color brown or reddish-brown. Gills are at first adnexed, soon free, crowded, linear, narrow, plane, flesh color and then whitish. It grows in tufts (caespitose). The stems are sometimes white, tomentose at the base. Stevenson says the cap is flesh color, but our specimen was of a pale or tan brown color, less than 2 inches broad; when moist it was much paler. Found in mixed woods in September.

PSATHYRELLA DISSEMINATA = scattered. The Widely-spread Psathyrella.

Cap a light-colored yellowish-brown, changing into an ash color; the disc with a yellowish shade; of an oval shape, then bell-shaped, and marked with lines, almost sulcate. The margin does not extend beyond the gills. It is a small mushroom, measuring from 2 or 3 lines across the cap to 1 inch. Stem about 1 inch long or more, fragile, hollow, sometimes curved and bending, smooth and light-colored. Gills adnate, rather broad, slightly narrowed at both ends, at first whitish and then turning a brownish color. The plants vary greatly in height and size, are sometimes caespitose and at other times scattered. The disc in some specimens was slightly raised in the middle, almost umbonate. It was found about stumps and on the ground, at the end of May, in mixed woods. It soon withers, but does not melt into fluid.

HYPHOLOMA CAPNOIDES = smoke. The Gray-gilled Mushroom.

Cap is reddish-brown, 1 to 3 inches broad, fleshy, convex, then flattened, obtuse, dry, smooth. The margin in our specimen was slightly revolute. Flesh white. Stem 2 to 3 inches long, 2 to 4 lines thick, growing together at the base (connate), hollow, equal, often curved, becoming silky, even, whitish at apex, and here and there striate. Gills gray color, adnate, easily separating, rather broad, waxy. The name is given on account of the smoke-colored gills. It is not common, and is generally found on or about stumps in the autumn.

HYPHOLOMA PERPLEXUM = perplexing. The Perplexing Hypholoma.

Cap brownish and turning to yellow, 1 to 3 inches broad and slightly umbonate, flesh whitish. Stem nearly equal, 2 to 3 inches long, 2 to 4 lines thick, firm, hollow, slightly fibrillose, whitish or yellowish above, reddish-brown below. Gills thin, close, slightly rounded at inner end, at first pale yellow, then tinged with green, finally purplish-brown. Taste mild. It grows in clusters. We found it both on and around old stumps, in the woods. It is sometimes solitary. (Edible.)

COLLYBIA DRYOPHILA = oak-loving. The Oak-loving Collybia.

Cap tan color, often varying in color, 1/2 inch broad, thin, convex, nearly plane, sometimes with margin elevated, irregular, smooth, flesh white. Stem equal or thickened at base, 1 to 2 inches long, 1 to 2 lines broad, cartilaginous, smooth, hollow, yellowish, or reddish like the cap. Gills narrow, crowded, adnexed or nearly free, whitish. This little mushroom we found in a thick woods late in September, growing among dead leaves. There were oak trees all around and a great many pines. The weather had been rainy, and it was pale-colored and looked water-soaked.

TRICHOLOMA IMBRICATA = a tile. The Imbricated Tricholoma.

Cap reddish-brown, 3 inches broad, thick, fleshy, broadly convex, and then flattened, obtuse, dry, continuous at disc, but torn into scales and fibrillose toward the margin; flesh firm, white. Stem solid, stout, sometimes short, and conico-bulbous, 1 1/2 to 2 inches long, and as much as 1 inch thick, sometimes longer and almost equal; white at apex. Gills slightly emarginate, almost adnate, somewhat crowded, about 3 inches broad, wholly white when young, at length reddish. It grows either scattered or in groups. It is found in pine woods in September and November.

BOLETUS ORNATIPES = ornate and foot. The Ornate-stemmed Boletus.

Cap 2 to 5 inches broad, yellowish-brown, convex, dry, firm, glabrous or minutely tomentose, flesh yellow or pale yellow. Tubes adnate, plane or concave, the mouths small or middle size, a clear yellow. Stem 2 to 4 inches long, 4 to 6 lines broad, subequal, distinctly and beautifully reticulated, yellow without and within. In woods and open places.

BOLETUS BREVIPES = short and foot. The Short-stemmed Boletus.

Cap dark chestnut color, 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 inches broad, thick, convex, covered with a tough gluten, margin inflexed, flesh white or yellowish. Tubes short, nearly plane, adnate, or slightly depressed around the stem, small, white and afterward dingy ochraceous. Stem 1/2 to 1 inch long, 3 to 5 lines thick, whitish, very short, not dotted, or rarely with a few inconspicuous dots at the edge. This plant was found in October, and looked as if it rested upon the ground, the stem was so short; the cap was covered with gluten.

LEPIOTA PROCERA = tall. The Tall Lepiota.

Cap reddish-brown, 3 to 6 inches broad, fleshy; when young egg-shaped, and then campanulate, and flattening out with a broad, obtuse umbo. The cuticle breaks up into brownish scales, close near the centre, but sometimes wanting at the margin. The centre or umbo is darker colored; flesh dry, tough and white. Stem 1/2 inch thick, and 5 to 10 inches long; it is straight or a little bent, swollen or bulbous at base, sometimes variegated with brownish scales; deeply sunk at apex into the cup of the pileus; hollow or stuffed. Ring distinct from the stem, continuous with cuticle of pileus when young. It becomes free when the cap is expanded, and is then movable and persistent. Gills far remote from the stem, with a broad plano-depressed cartilaginous collar, crowded, ventricose, broader in front, soft, whitish, sometimes becoming dusky at the edge. The gills vary in color. This mushroom is a handsome species and is quite common in woods and pastures. (Edible.)

BOLETUS EDULIS = edible. The Edible Boletus.

Cap varies sometimes in color (our specimen was brown). It is often a tawny light brown, paler at the margin, 4 to 6 inches broad, flesh white or yellowish, tinged with red under the cuticle. Tubes convex, nearly free, long, minute, round, white, then yellow and greenish. Stem 2 to 6 inches long, 6 to 18 lines thick, straight or bending, subequal or bulbous, short, more or less reticulated, especially above, whitish, pale reddish or brown. Found in August. Our specimen was small, the stem only 1 1/2 inch long. (Edible.)

BOLETUS SCABER = rough. The Scabrous-stemmed Boletus.

Cap varies in color, 1 to 5 inches broad, yellowish tan color, smooth, viscid when moist, at length rivulose. Tubes free, convex, white, then dingy color, mouths of tubes very small and round. Stem 3 to 5 inches long, 3 to 8 lines thick, solid, tapering above, roughened with fibrous scales. We found two or three varieties of this Boletus, which seems to grow everywhere in great abundance, in summer and autumn, in woods and in open places. One variety was of a yellowish tan color, Var. alutaceus, in another the flesh changed slightly to pinkish when wounded, Var. mutabilis (Peck). (Edible.)

BOLETUS CASTANEUS = chestnut. The Chestnut Boletus.

Cap a chestnut color, brown or reddish brown, 1 1/2 to 3 inches broad, convex, nearly plane or depressed, firm, even, dry, minutely velvety (tomentose), flesh white. Tubes free, short, small, white, becoming yellow. Stem 1 to 2 1/2 inches long, 3 to 5 lines thick, equal or tapering upward, even, stuffed or hollow, colored like the cap. This is one of the prettiest of the Boleti. The bright chestnut color of the pileus forms a contrast with the white tubes, and makes it striking in appearance. We found it on several occasions, as it is common in woods. There are differences of opinion in regard to its being edible.

BOLETUS CHRYSENTERON = golden. The Golden Flesh Boletus.

Cap dark brown or reddish-brown, 1 to 3 inches broad, convex or plane, soft, covered with woolly scales, sometimes marked with lines, flesh yellow, red beneath the cuticle, often slowly changing to blue when wounded, mouths large, angular, unequal. Stem 1 to 3 inches long, 3 to 6 lines thick, rigid, fibrous, striate, equal, reddish or pale yellow. This species is variable. We found one where the flesh was white, another where the tubes changed finally to green, and one that had an olive tint in the pileus.

BOLETUS ILLUDENS = deceiving. The Deceiving Boletus.

Cap yellow or olive brown, 3 inches broad, plane, dry, marked with areoles, that is, the surface is broken up into little areas or patches. Flesh thick, white, red under cuticle. Tubes greenish-yellow, turning dark green, adnato-decurrent, that is, broadly attached to the stem and running down it, 1/8 inch long. Stem 2 1/2 inches long, stuffed with brownish fibres, reticulated near apex, paler color than cap, curved.

BOLETUS PACHYPUS = thick. The Thick-stemmed Boletus.

Cap tan color, 4 to 8 inches broad, convex, somewhat covered with long, soft hairs pressed closely to surface, subtomentose; flesh thick, whitish, changing slightly to blue. Tubes rather long, depressed around the stem, mouths round, pale yellow, at length tinged with green. Stem 2 to 4 inches long, thick, firm, reticulated, at first ovate, bulbous, then lengthened, equal, tinted pale yellow and red. The stem in the specimen was 1/4 inch thick, swelling from apex downward, but it often measures 2 inches in thickness. This Boletus is considered poisonous.

BOLETUS SUBTOMENTOSUS = almost velvety. The Yellow-cracked Boletus.

Cap dark brown, 1 to 4 inches broad, convex or nearly plane, soft, dry, covered with soft, weak, appressed hairs, almost olivaceous, of the same color beneath the cuticle, often marked with cracks and divided into little patches; flesh white or pallid. Tubes adnate, or depressed around the stem, yellow, mouths large, angular. Stem 1 to 2 1/2 inches long, 2 to 5 lines thick, stout, somewhat ribbed, or scurfy, with minute dots. The cap varies in color, it may be yellowish-brown. We found the dark brown species growing on decaying wood, in pine woods, during the month of September.

BOLETUS PIPERATUS = peppery. The Peppery Boletus.

Cap reddish-brown or ochraceous, 1 to 3 inches broad, convex or nearly plane, smooth, slightly viscid when moist, flesh white or yellowish, taste acrid, peppery. Tubes long, large, unequal, plane or convex, adnate or nearly decurrent, reddish, ferruginous. Stem 1 1/2 to 3 inches long, 2 to 4 lines thick, slender, almost equal, tawny yellow; at the base a bright yellow. The cap in our specimen was marked with cracks and patches, and the margin obtuse. The stem was rather curved, and the same color as the cap. Flesh yellow. Tubes a dark-reddish, decided color, which makes it a striking-looking mushroom. Taste peppery.

BOLETUS SORDIDUS = dingy. The Dingy-colored Boletus.

Cap a dingy, dark brown, about 2 inches broad, flesh white, tinged with red. Tubes long, nearly free, 3/8 inch long, white, turning a dark bluish-green. Stem tapering toward apex, 2 1/2 inches long, curved, solid, 1/2 inch thick, brownish, marked with darker streaks. The mouths of tubes were angular, and the stem striate in our specimen. Found in the woods in August.

BOLETUS SUBLUTEUS = almost, and yellow. The Small Yellow Boletus.

Cap brownish yellow, 1 1/2 to 3 inches broad, convex or nearly plane, viscid or glutinous when moist, often obscurely streaked (virgate). Flesh whitish or dull yellowish. Tubes plane or convex, adnate, small, nearly round, yellow, becoming ochraceous. Stem 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 inches long, 2 to 4 lines thick, equal, slender, pale or yellowish, dotted above and below the ring with reddish, brownish, moist, or sticky dots (glandules). Ring almost soft, glutinous, at first concealing the tubes, then collapsing and forming a narrow whitish or brownish band around the stem. Our Boletus had a brownish ring. The cap was covered with a sticky, skin-like layer, called the pellicle or cuticle, both terms having the same meaning.

BOLETUS AFFINIS = related. The Related Boletus.

Cap reddish-brown, fading to yellow, 2 to 4 inches broad, convex above and almost plane, nearly smooth, flesh white. Tubes plane or convex, adnate or slightly compressed around the stem, at first white and stuffed, then yellowish, turning to rusty ochraceous when wounded. Stem 1 1/2 to 3 inches long, 4 to 8 lines thick, nearly equal, even, smooth, paler than the cap. Our specimen had a few yellowish spots on the cap, and is called Var. maculosus. (Edible.)

PAXILLUS LEPTOPUS = thin and a foot. The Thin-stemmed Paxillus.

This is the only specimen of the genus Paxillus that we have found. There is another species, P. involutus, which Professor Peck says is edible. Stevenson says that P. leptopus is a remarkable species, that it is distinguished from P. involutus by having the gills simple at the base, not united by interlacing or transverse veins (anastomosing). Cap was a light brownish-yellow; it varies from 1 1/2 to 3 inches in breadth, eccentric or lateral, depressed in the middle, dry, covered with dense down, soon torn into scales, which are a dingy yellow. Flesh yellow. Stem short, scarcely 1 inch, tapering downward, yellow inside. Gills decurrent, tense and straight, crowded, narrow, yellowish, then darker in color. It was growing on the ground in September.


CORTINARIUS ALBO-VIOLACEOUS = white and violet. The Violet-colored Cortinarius.

Cap whitish-violet, 2 to 3 inches broad, fleshy, convex, broadly umbonate or gibbous, dry, beautifully silky and becoming even; flesh juicy, a bluish-white color. Stem 2 to 4 inches long, solid, firm, bulbous, club-shaped, 1/2 to 1 inch thick. It is, both outside and inside, of a whitish violet color, often fibrillose above, with the cortina, and sometimes with the white veil, in the form of a zone at the middle. Gills adnate, 2 to 3 lines broad, somewhat distant, slightly serrulated, of a peculiar ashy violaceous color, at length slightly cinnamon from the spores. It has no odor and the taste is insipid. We found this in the woods in the month of October, growing on dead leaves; a pretty fungus from the violet tints.


Here follows a list of fungi that we constantly see, but which cannot be classified by the color of the cap.


FISTULINA HEPATICA = liver. The Beefsteak Fungus.

This species grows on trees, oaks or chestnuts, in hot weather. Cap is of a dark-red color, which probably suggested the name. It is generally 2 to 6 inches broad, but often grows to an immense size. The surface is rough, the flesh thick, viscid above, soft when young, when old tough, covered with tenacious fibres. Stem short and thick. Pores at first pallid or yellowish-pink when young; they become brownish ochraceous when old. It is changeable in form, is sometimes sessile (without a stem), or it has a short lateral stem.

The genus Fistulina, to which this mushroom belongs, has the under surface of the cap covered with minute hollow pores, which are separate from one another and stand side by side. The shape varies. It is sometimes long, shaped like a tongue, or roundish. It is peculiar-looking. It is considered good for food and nourishing, but the taste is said to be rather acid. The specimens we found varied from 2 to 5 inches in diameter. They were of a dark-red color, and were tough and old. They grew upon a tree in a large forest, and were not found anywhere else.

POLYPORUS BETULINUS = birch. The Birch Polyporus.

We shall meet a great many fungi on our walks that belong to the genus Polyporus. They are generally leathery (coriaceous) fungi, and many grow on wood. A few are edible, but are not recommended as food. The species P. betulinus is found on living and dead birch trees. The specimens we found grew in great quantities, of all sizes, from 1 1/2 to 6 inches broad. They were at first pure white, and then assumed a brownish tinge. The edges were obtuse, the caps fleshy, then corky, smooth, the upper ends not regular, oblique in the form of an umbo or little knob, the pellicles or outside layers thin and easily separated. Pores short, small, unequal, at length separating. The shape of the fungus is peculiar, a sort of semi-circular outline that may be called dimidiate. The margins were involute. They protruded from a split in the bark of a dead birch tree which lay prostrate on the ground, several feet in length, and it was literally covered with the fungi, some an inch wide and snow white, and the largest 5 or 6 inches in width, and of a brownish-gray tinge. These specimens became as hard as wood after they had been kept for some time. The thin skin peeled off easily and disclosed the snowy flesh beneath.

POLYPORUS PERENNIS = perennial. The Perennial Polyporus.

Cap is cinnamon-colored, then of a date brown, leathery, tough, funnel-shaped, becoming smooth, zoned. Pores minute, angular, acute, at first sprinkled with a white bloom, then naked and torn. Stem slightly firm, thickened downward, velvety. This is a common species, and one meets with it everywhere on the ground, and on stumps, from July to January. The cap is 1 1/2 to 2 inches broad, and the stem 1 inch long.

POLYPORUS PICIPES = pitch and foot. The Black-stemmed Polyporus.

Cap pallid color, then turning chestnut, often a pale yellowish livid color, with the disc chestnut, fleshy, leathery, rigid, tough, even, smooth, depressed at disc or behind. Flesh white. Stem eccentric and lateral, equal, firm, at first velvety, then naked, and dotted black up to the pores. Pores decurrent, round, very small, rather slender, white, then slightly pale and yellowish. This fungus grows on the trunks of trees, and is found as late as the middle of winter.

POLYPORUS SULPHUREUS = brimstone. The Sulphury Polyporus.

This mushroom gains its name from the color of its pores, which are of a bright sulphur color. It grows in tufted layers (caespitose), sometimes 1 to 2 feet long, and it cannot be mistaken. Cap may measure 8 inches in breadth, and is of a reddish-yellow color, overlapping like the shingles of a roof (imbricated). It is wavy and rather smooth. Flesh light yellowish, then white, splitting open. Pores are minute, even, sulphur yellow. They retain their color much better than the pileus. The plants are generally without a stem, but there may be a short stem, which is lateral. They grow in clusters, all fastened together and one above the other, and of all sizes. We saw this fungus first in a dense woods, where its bright color at once attracted our notice. It was growing in a large cluster, closely packed one over the other. It is said to be good for food when young and tender.

POLYPORUS LUCIDUS = bright. The Shining Polyporus.

One can never mistake this fungus. Its surface looks as if covered with varnish, rather wrinkled, a bright dark-red color, and its shape is varied and singular. We have seen it sometimes shaped like a fan, and like a lady's high comb, or in some fantastic form. Stevenson says it is a light yellow color and then becomes blood red chestnut. It is first corky, then woody. Stem lateral, equal, varnished, shining, of the same color as cap. Pores are long, very small, white and then cinnamon color. It grows on and about stumps during the summer. Cap is from 2 to 6 inches broad, and the stem 6 to 10 inches long, and 1 or more thick.

POLYPORUS VERSICOLOR = changeable. The Changeable Polyporus.

This species is also common. It is found on dead wood, in all forms and colors. Cap variegated with different-colored zones; leathery, thin, rigid, depressed behind, becoming velvety. Pores minute, round, acute and torn, white, turning pale or yellow.

POLYPORUS ELEGANS = elegant. The Elegant Polyporus.

Cap 2 to 4 inches broad, of one color, pallid, ochraceous or orange, shining, equally fleshy, and then hardened, becoming woody, flattened, even, smooth. Flesh white. Stem eccentric or lateral, even, smooth, pallid at first, abruptly black and rooting at the base. Pores plane, minute, somewhat round, yellowish-white, pallid. The cap differs in shape from others that have been described; it is not funnel-shaped nor streaked, and is scarcely depressed, and the flesh is thick to the margin. It grows on trunks of trees from July to November.


We now come to another order, Clavariei, of which the first genus is Clavaria, from a word meaning a club. They are fleshy fungi, not coriaceous. They have no distinct stem and generally grow on the ground. We will mention a few of those we often see. They somewhat resemble coral in growth but not in color.

CLAVARIA STRICTA = to draw tight. The Constricted Clavaria.

This Clavaria grows on trunks of trees. It is of a pale yellowish color, becoming a dusky brown (fuscous) when bruised. The base is about 3 lines long, thick and much branched. The branches and branchlets are tense and straight, crowded, adpressed and acute. Stevenson says that this species is uncommon in Great Britain.

CLAVARIA FLAVA = yellow. The Pale Yellow Clavaria.

Stevenson does not mention this species, so it may be peculiar to this country. Stem is short and stout, thick, and abruptly dissolves into a dense mass of erect branches nearly parallel. The tips are yellow but fade when old. It branches below and the stems are whitish. Flesh white. It is recommended as well flavored and edible.

CLAVARIA PISTILLARIS = a pestle. The Large Club Clavaria.

This species belongs to the largest of the unbranched kind. It is generally 3 to 5 inches high, and 1/2 to 2/3 of an inch thick at top. Light yellow color, then reddish, and dingy brown in decay. It is smooth and the flesh soft and white. It is rounded at the top and club-shaped. It tapers downward toward the base. Stevenson gives the height from 6 to 12 inches, but Professor Peck says he has not seen it as large in this country. It is found in open grassy places. It was late in the autumn when we discovered it. (Edible.)

CLAVARIA INEQUALIS = unequal. The Unequal Clavaria.

This fungus is yellow and fragile. The clubs are alike in color, simple or forked, and variable. It is common in woods and pastures. We found it in September in the woods, rather wrinkled in appearance. It is not classed among the edible species.

TYPHULA = reed mace.

One may sometimes see among the dead leaves in the woods, minute slender bodies with thread-like stems, springing up from the ground, 2 to 3 inches high, of a white color and cylindrical in shape. They look like slender stems from which the blossoms have been plucked. They are called Typhula. They grow on dead leaves, on mosses, or on dead herbaceous stems. The name is taken from the Cat Tail family, the Typhaceae, which they somewhat resemble in miniature.

SCHIZOPHYLLUM COMMUNE = to split, a leaf and common. The Common Schizophyllum.

There is but one species given by Stevenson of this genus, and, as the name demonstrates, it is common, at least in this country. In Great Britain it is rare. It grows on dead wood and logs. It has zones, either of gray or white color, and it is turned up at the edge (revolute). There is no flesh, and the pileus is dry. The gills are branched fan-wise. It is not a typical Agaric, but is more like some Polyporei. The gills are split longitudinally at the edge, and the two lips commonly turn backward (revolute).


There is one species belonging to the order Tremellodon that is quite common. It is called the Jew's ear. It is a very peculiar-looking fungus, shaped somewhat like the human ear, of all sizes, and grows in great quantities in the same place. It looks as if it were composed of a thick jelly, and becomes soft and tremulous when damp. Its color is dark, sometimes almost black. It is tough and cup-shaped, with ridges across it like an ear. The generic name, Hirneola, means a jug, and the specific name, Auricula Judae, a Jew's ear.


SCLERODERMA VULGARE = hard, skin, common. The Common Hard-skinned Mushroom.

This species closely resembles the common potato in shape and color. It generally measures 2 to 3 inches across, and is of a pale brown color. It grows close on the earth, is folded toward the base, and firm in texture. The cuticle is covered with warts or scales.

CRUCIBULUM VULGARE = crucible, common. The Common Crucible.

This little fungus is about 1/4 of an inch across. It resembles a tiny bird's-nest with eggs in it. At first it looks like a cottony knot, closely covered; its apex is closed by a membrane, then its covering is thrown off, and the apparent tiny eggs are merely smaller envelopes, called the peridiola. These are lentil-shaped and pale, and are fastened to the inside of the covering by a long cord, which can be seen only through a strong lens.

CYATHUS VERNICOSUS = varnished. The Varnished Cup.

This differs from the crucible in color, form and habitat. It is about 1/2 an inch high. It is bell-shaped, becoming broadly open like a trumpet, and of a slate or ash color. The mouth and lining shine as if varnished, and hence its name. The plants grow on the ground, on wood and on leaves.

+LYCOPERDON CYATHIFORME = cup-shape.+ The Cup-shaped Puff-ball.+

This species of puff-ball is round with a contracted base. It is 4 to 10 inches across, a white or pinkish-brown color, afterward becoming a darker brown and covered with small patches. When the spores mature the upper part of the covering (peridium) becomes torn and only the lower part remains. It looks like a dark-colored cup with a ragged margin, and may be seen by the excursionist in the spring on the roadside. It has survived the winter frosts and storms. It is split and shabby looking. In August it is a whitish puff-ball, in the spring only a torn, brown cup.

LYCOPERDON PYRIFORME = pear-shape. The Pear-shaped Puff-ball.

This species is shaped like a pear. It is from 1 to 4 inches high and is covered with persistent warts so small as to look like scales to the naked eye. It is of a dingy white or brownish-yellow. Its shape separates it from the puff-balls, especially from the warted puff-ball, L. gemmatum, which is nearly round with a base like a stem, an ashy-gray color, and the surface is also warty, but unequally so, and as the warts fall off they leave the puff-ball dotted. The pear-shaped puff-ball has little fibrous rootlets, and the plants grow in crowds on decaying trees.

GEASTER HYGROMETRICUS = moisture, measure. The Wandering Earth Star.

This earth star is from 2 to 3 1/2 inches wide. It is sessile, of a brownish color, and changes its form accordingly as the weather is moist or dry, hence the name. It is contracted and round in dry weather, and star-like in damp atmosphere, with its lobes stretched out on the earth. The covering consists of three layers, the two outermost split from the top into several acute divisions, which spread out like the points of a star. The innermost layer is round and attached by the base. There are one or more openings at the top for the escape of the spores.

PHALLUS IMPUDICUS = disgusting. The Fetid Wood Witch.

In the first stages the plant is white, soft and heavy, in shape and size like a hen's egg. It is covered by three layers, the outer one firm, the middle one gelatinous, the third and inner one consists of a thin membrane. This phallus develops under the ground until its spores are mature. At length the apex is ruptured by the growth of the spore receptacle, and the stem expands and elongates, escaping through the top, and elevates the cap into the air. The stem at the early stage is composed of cells filled with a gluten. The stem afterward becomes open and spongy, owing to the drying of the gelatinous matter. The spores are immersed in a strong-smelling, olive-green gluten. They are on the outside of the cap and embedded in its ridges. A part of the volva remains as a sheath at the base of the stem. This plant develops so rapidly as to attain in a few hours the height of seven inches, the stem is of lace-like structure, pure white, and its appearance suggests the silicious sponge so ornamental in collections, commonly known as Venus' basket. The drooping cap is also lacey with a network, and the spores drip mucus and then dry up, in the meantime spreading around a carrion-like, fetid smell. The Phallus, therefore, differs greatly in appearance from the other genera of the order when it is seen above ground, but if one is successful in finding it at an early stage, under the surface of the earth, he will realize its relationship to the general group, and find it an interesting subject of study.


PEZIZA AUKANTIA = golden. The Golden Peziza.

This species is 2 to 3 inches in diameter, its disc is bright orange color, while its exterior is pale and downy, owing to the presence of short, stout hairs. It is sessile or nearly so, and grows in tufts on the ground near stumps of trees. At first the disc is thin and brittle, with a raised margin, much waved, becoming incised, and finally spreads flat on the ground.

MORCHELLA ESCULENTA = food. The Edible or Common Morel.

This is 2 to 4 inches high, stem about 1/2 inch in diameter. The cap is of a dull yellow color, olivaceous, darkening with age to a brownish tinge. It is oval-shaped, with dark hollows.

HELVELLA INFULA = name of a woollen head-dress. The Cap-like Helvella.

This species is named Infula, because it is supposed to resemble in shape the sacred woollen head-dress worn by priests of Rome, by supplicants and victims, tied around the head by a ribbon or bandage, which hangs down on both sides. The stem is surmounted with a lobed cap, with two to four irregularly drooping lobes of reddish or cinnamon-brown color, and is about 3 inches in diameter. The stem is 2 or 3 inches high, usually smooth, but sometimes pitted. We found our specimen in the woods in August.


Let us suppose that the beginner finds a mushroom and wishes to name it. He has learned its component parts. He has remarked the names of the classes into which mushrooms are divided. How then shall he make use of the Keys? We will imagine that he has found a Cantharellus. The cap is yellow color, so let him turn to the list of fungi described under the section "Yellow and Orange," and see if it agrees in appearance with anyone of these. (It is necessary before consulting a key to find the color of the spores. This is done by cutting off the cap, and placing it, gills downward, on paper, and leaving it there for two or three hours. Having followed these directions in this case it will have been seen that the spores are white.)

After consulting the list of "Yellow and Orange" he will find that the first one mentioned is Cantharellus cibarius, the Chantarelle. The description resembles that of the mushroom found in every particular.

Now let the beginner go further, and prove the correctness of the name in another way. Turning to the section called "General Helps to the Memory," on page 68, and reading the names of the different genera under the headings until he comes to the name Cantharellus, he will find it in the table called "Mushrooms with gills running down the stems (decurrent)." This distinction is apparent in the specimen found. Again, let him turn to the list of white-spored Agarics, page 73, and he will find the name of the genus Cantharellus there. Now, as an additional test, let him turn to the key at the end of this work, the key to Hymenomycetes. He must have learned enough by this time to know that his mushroom belongs to this class, namely, the one that has spores produced upon the lower part of the cap, and, also, that it is an Agaric, from its having gills on the under side. Let him begin with Section A, "with cap." 1. Mushrooms with radiating gills beneath caps (Agarics). The key then follows: 1. Plants fleshy, soon decaying. 2. Turn to number 2. There are two descriptions, juice milky and juice watery; he will choose the second one, which is followed by the number 3. Then follows, stem central or nearly so; this agrees with the plant, and leads to 4. The first line reads "white spores," which is correct; then comes 5. There are four lines with descriptions, the last one, "no ring and no volva," is right, which leads to 7. There are here two lines belonging to 7, the second one, "gills in the form of folds, obtuse edge," is correct, and points to 10. This reads, "Gills decurrent, plant terrestrial, Cantharellus." The Key gives the name of the genus only. In the list of descriptions an attempt is made to mention some of the commonest species. These directions apply to all the keys alike.


Key to Hymenomycetes, Membrane Fungi.

Hymenomycetes or membrane fungi are divided into two sections:

Section A, with cap. Section B, without cap.

Section A is divided into four classes:

I. Mushrooms with radiating gills beneath caps, gill-bearing mushrooms (Agarics).

II. With pores or tubes beneath caps (Polyporei).

III. With spines or teeth beneath the cap or branches (Hydnei).

IV. Where the spore-bearing surface beneath the cap is even, smooth, or slightly wrinkled (Thelephorei).

Section B is divided into two classes:

I. Plants club-shaped and simple, or bush-like and branched (Clavariei).

II. Plants gelatinous and irregular (Tremellinei).


Class I. Key to Gill-bearing Mushrooms (Agarics).

1. Plants fleshy, soon decaying, 2. Plants leathery, woody, persistent, 12.

2. Juice milky, white, or colored, Lactarius. Juice watery, 3.

3. Stem central, or nearly so, 4. Stem lateral, eccentric or wanting, 11.

4. Spores white, 5. Spores rosy, pink or salmon color, 15. Spores yellowish-brown, ochre color, 17. Spores dark brown, 21. Spores black, 24.

5. With volva and ring, Amanita. Volva and no ring, Amanita (sub-genus Amanitopsis). Ring and no volva, 6. No ring and no volva, 7.

6. Gills free, ring movable, pileus scaly, Lepiota. Gills adnate, pileus generally smooth, Armillaria.

7. Gills thin, edge acute, 8. Gills in the form of folds, obtuse edge, 10.

8. Gills decurrent or stem fleshy. Clitocybe. Gills sinuate, notched behind, stem fleshy, Tricholoma. Gills adnate, not decurrent, stem cartilaginous, Collybia. Stem fleshy, cap often bright color, 9.

9. Plants rigid, gills even, cap bright, Russula. Plants with waxy gills, Hygrophorus.

10. Gills decurrent, plant terrestrial, Cantharellus.

11. Spores white, Pleurotus. Spores yellowish or brown, Crepidotus.

12. Gills serrated on their edges, stem central or lateral, Lentinus. Gills entire, stem central, 13. Stem lateral or wanting, 14.

13. Gills simple, pileus dry, soon withering, then reviving when moist, Marasmius.

14. Gills deeply splitting, with weak hairs, Schizophyllum. Gills united by veins, plant corky, Lenzites.

15. Volva, no ring, Volvaria. No volva, ring present, Annularia. No volva, no ring, 16.

16. Gills free, rounded behind, cohering at first, Pluteus. Gills adnate or sinuate, stem fleshy, soft, waxy, cap fleshy, margin incurved, Entoloma. Gills decurrent, stem fleshy, Clitopilis.

17. Ring continuous, pileus with scales, Pholiota. Ring cobwebby or evanescent, not apparent in old specimens, 18. Ring wanting, 19. Stem with cartilaginous rind, 21.

18. Gills adnate, plants on the ground, Cortinarius.

19. Gills decurrent, stem fleshy, gills easily separating, Paxillus. Gills not decurrent, stem fleshy, 20.

20. Pileus fibrillose, or silky, Inocybe. Pileus smooth and sticky, Hebeloma.

21. Veil remaining attached to margin of pileus, often not seen in old specimens, Hypholoma. Veil on stem as a ring, 22. Margin of cap incurved when young, Naucoria.

22. Gills separate on the stem, Agaricus or Psalliota. Gills united with stem, Stropharia. Gills adnate or sinuate, 23.

23. Margin of pileus incurved when young, Psilocybe. Margin of pileus always straight, Psathyra.

24. Pileus of normal form, 25.

25. Pileus fleshy, membranaceous or deliquescent, 26.

26. Gills deliquescent—inky fluid, Coprinus. Gills not deliquescent—ring present, Annellaria. Gills not decurrent—ring wanting, 27.

27. Pileus striate—plants small, Psathyrella. Pileus not striate, stem fleshy, margin exceeding the gills, Panaeolus.

Class II. Key to Pore-bearing Fungi (Polyporei).

1. Pores readily separating from cap, spores whitish or brownish, Boletus.

2. Stems strictly lateral, pores in the form of tubes, mouths are separate from each other (growing on wood), Fistulina.

3. Tubes not separable from each other, round, angular, or torn, fleshy, leathery or woody, Polyporus.

(Key to species of Boleti may be found in Professor Peck's work on Boleti.)

Class III. Key to Spine-bearing Fungi (Hydnei).

1. Spines awl-shaped, distinct at base, Hydnum. Spines awl-shaped, equal; plant gelatinous, tremulous, Tremellodon.

Class IV. Key to Smooth Surface Fungi (Thelephorei).

1. Spores white, on ground, fleshy, tubiform, cap blackish, scaly, stem hollow, Craterellus Cornucopioides.

2. Coriaceous or woody, somewhat zoned, entire, definite in form, Stereum.


Class I. Key to Clavariei.

1. Fleshy, branched or simple, without distinct stem, growing on the ground, Clavaria.

2. Growing on trunks, yellowish, becoming dark, much branched, tense and straight, C. stricta.

3. Yellow, stuffed, clubs simple or forked, of the same color, C. inequalis.

4. Color changeable, becoming dark, light yellow, then reddish, simple, fleshy, stuffed, obovate, clavate, obtuse, C. pistillaris.


Key to Gasteromycetes and Ascomycetes.

Section A. Fungi that have the spores inside the cap. (Stomach fungi or Gasteromycetes.)

Section B. Fungi that have the spores in delicate sacs. (Spore sac fungi or Ascomycetes.)


1. Fungi covered with a hard rind, Scleroderma.

2. In which the spores when ripe turn to dust, 4. Where spores are at first closed in a cup-like sac that resembles a bird's-nest, 3.

3. Fungi with the outside covering bowl-shaped Crucibulum, of one cottony layer, the Crucible. Outside covering tubular, trumpet-shaped, Cyathus, of 3 layers, the cup. Outside covering opening with a torn mouth, Nidularia, bird's-nest.

4. Outer covering splitting into star-like points, Geaster, earth star. Outer covering opening by a single mouth Lycoperdon, at the top, puff-ball. Spores at first borne in an egg-like sac, Phallus, when ripe elevated on a cap at the top of stink-horn the stem, no veil, has an odious smell, fungus.


1. Where the sacs soon become free, no special Peziza, covering, mostly fleshy, cup-like fungi, cup fungus. Sacs opening from the first, caps pitted or furrowed, 2.

2. Cap lobed, irregular, saddle-shaped, Helvella, yellowish fungus. Cap oval or conical, upper surface with Morchella or Morel, deep pits formed by long ridges, honey-combed fungus.

(The genera described under Section B. all belong to the order of Discomycetes, fungi that have the spore sacs collected in a flattened disc.)


Acute'. Gills when called acute have sharp edges or are pointed at either end. Adnate'. Spoken of gills when they are firmly attached to the stem. Adnex'. A less degree of attachment of gills than adnate. A'garic. A mushroom that bears gills. Aluta'ceous. A light leather color. Anas'tomosing. Interlacing of veins, spoken of gills that are united by cross veins or partitions. An'nulus. The ring on the stem of a mushroom, formed by the separation of the veil from the margin of the cap. A'pex. The top. The end of the stem nearest to the gills. Ap'ical. Relating to the apex. Appendic'ulate. Hanging in small fragments. Arach'noid. Like a cobweb. Ar'cuate. Shaped like a bow. Are'olate. Any surface divided into little areas or patches. Axis. Stipe or stalk.

Band. A broad bar of color. Basid'ium (plural basidia). Mother cells in the hymenium. Behind. Posterior, the end of a gill next to the stem is said to be the posterior end. Bifur'cate. Two-forked. Bulbous. Spoken of the stem when it has a bulb-like swelling at the base.

Caes'pitose. Growing in tufts. Campan'ulate. Bell-shaped. Cap. The pileus. Cartilag'inous. Gristly, tough. Casta'neus. Chestnut color. Cell. A mass of protoplasm, with or without an enclosing wall. Chlorophyll. The green coloring-matter contained in plants. Cla'vate. Club-shaped. Close. Crowded together—term used in describing gills. Cohe'rent. Sticking together. Con'cave. Having a rounded inwardly curved surface. Concen'tric. With a common centre, as a series of rings, one within the other. Con'nate. Growing together from the first. Constric'ted. Contracted. Contin'uous. Without interruption. Convex. Elevated and regularly rounded. Con'volute. Covered with irregularities on the surface, like the human brain. Coria'ceous. Leathery in texture. Cor'rugated. Wrinkled. Corti'na. A veil of cobwebby texture. It gives the name to the genus Cortinarius. Cre'nate. In wavy scallops. Cu'ticle. Pellicle, a skin-like layer on the outside surface of the cap and stem. Cy'athiform. Cup-shaped.

Decid'uous. Falling off when mature at the end of the season. Decur'rent. Gills that run down the stem are called decurrent. Dehis'cence. The opening of a peridium, when ripe, to discharge the spores. Deliques'cent. Turning to liquid when mature. Dichot'omous. Two-forked, regularly dividing by pairs from below upward. Dimid'iate. Divided into two equal parts, applied to gills that only reach half-way to the stem, and to the cap when it is semi-circular or nearly so. Disc. The central part of the upper surface of the cap. Distant. Gills when they are far apart.

Emar'ginate. A gill which has a sudden curve in its margin close to the stem. Entire. An edge that is straight, has no notch. Ep'iphytal. Growing on the outside of another plant. Equal. A stem is equal when it is of uniform thickness, gills when they are of equal length. Eccen'tric. A stem which is not in the centre, but is attached to the cap between the margin and centre.

Fascic'ulate. Growing in clusters. Ferru'ginous. Color of iron rust. Fi'brous. Composed of fibres. Fis'tulose. Tubular, hollow. Fleshy. Composed of juicy cellular tissue. Floccose. Woolly, downy. Free. Gills when not attached to the stem. Fungus (plural Fungi). A plant that has no chlorophyll, and obtains its nourishment from dead or living organic matter. Fus'cous. Dingy dark-brown, or gray color,

Gelat'inous. Of the nature of jelly. Genus. A number of species that have the same principal characteristics. Gib'bous. Swollen unequally—applied to the cap. Gill. Lamella, a radiating plate under the cap of an Agaric. Gla'brous. Smooth. Glo'bose. Nearly round. Gran'ular. Consisting of or covered with grains. Grega'rions. Growing in groups.

Hab'itat. Place of growth. Homoge'neous. Of like nature. Hyme'nium. The fruit-bearing surface, a continuous layer of spore mother cells. Hy'phae (singular Hypha). Elementary threads of a fungus, cylindrical, thread-like bodies, developing by growth at the apex.

Im'bricated. Overlapping like the tiles of a roof. Incras'sated. Thickened. Inferior. Applied to a ring that is far down on the stem. Infundibuliform. Funnel-shaped. Involute. Rolled inward.

Labyrin'thine. Like a labyrinth. Lac'erate. Torn. Lamel'la. See gill. Line. 1/12 of an inch.

Mac'ulate. Spotted. Me'dial or median. When the ring is situated in the middle of the stem. Membrana'ceous. Thin, soft, like a membrane. Mica'ceous. Covered with shining particles, like mica. Mother cell. A cell from which another is derived. Myce'lium. The vegetative part of fungi, commonly called the spawn. Mycol'ogist. One who is versed in the study of fungi.

Obo'vate. Having the broad end turned toward the top. Ob'solete. Nearly imperceptible. Obtuse. Blunt. Ochra'ceous. Light brownish-yellow. Ovate. Egg-shaped.

Par'asite. A plant growing on another living body, from which it gains its nourishment. Pel'licle. See cuticle. Peren'nial. Growing from year to year. Perid'ium. The outer covering of the spores in some fungi, as in puff-balls. Peridi'olum. The inside peridium containing the spores. Pi'leus. See cap. Pir'iform or pyriform. Pear-shaped. Plane. Level surface. Pores. The tubes in Polyporei. Poste'rior. Term applied to the end of the gill next to the stem. Pru'inose. Covered with a bloom or powder. Pulver'ulent. Covered with powder or dust. Putres'cent. Decaying.

Rad'icating. Taking root. Retic'ulated. Marked with cross lines like a net. Rev'olute. Rolled upward or backward. Ri'mose. Cracked. Rim'ulose. Covered with small cracks. Ring. Annulus. Riv'ulose. Marked with lines like rivers in maps. Rotund'. Round. Ru'gose. Wrinkled.

Sap'id. Agreeable to the taste. Sap'rophyte. A plant that lives on decaying matter. Scab'rous. Rough. Scis'sile. Easily split. Sep'arating. Spoken of gills when they easily separate from the stem. Ses'sile. Stemless. Sin'uate. Wavy, A gill that has a sudden curve near the stem. Sor'did. Dingy. Spore. The same body that answers to the seed of flowering plants. Spo'rophore. That part which bears the spores or spore mother cells. Squa'mose. Scaly. Stalk. A stipe or stem. Stel'late. Star-shaped. Stipe. See stalk. Strobil'iform. Shaped like a pine-cone. Stuffed. When a stem is filled with pith or a spongy substance. Suc'culent. Juicy, fleshy. Sul'cate. Grooved. Supe'rior. Spoken of a ring that is high up on the stem.

Tes'sellated. In small squares, or checkered. To'mentose. Covered with matted wool. Tra'ma. The substance proceeding from and of like nature with the part that bears the hymenium—the framework of the gills. Trem'elloid. Jelly-like. Tu'baeform. Trumpet-shaped.

Umbil'icate. Having a central depression. Um'bo. Arising or mound in the centre of the cap.

Veins. Swollen wrinkles on the sides and at the base between the gills. Ven'tricose. Swelling in the middle. Ver'nicose. Varnished. Vil'lose. Covered with weak, soft hairs. Vires'cent. Greenish. Vir'gate. Streaked. Vis'cid. Sticky. Vis'cous. Gluey.

Zones. Circular bands of color.


GENUS. ENGLISH OR COMMON NAMES. GREEK OR PAGE. LATIN NAMES. Agaricus. The flat-capped mushroom, A. placomyces. 104 Agaricus. The common or edible mushroom, A. campestris. 103 Amanita. The death cup, A. phalloides. 108 Amanita. The fly Amanita, A. muscaria. 89 Amanita. Frost's Amanita, A. Frostiana. 90 Amanita. The poisonous Amanita, A. virosa. 107 Amanita. The shining Amanita, A. nitida. 109 Amanita. The sheathed Amanita, A. vaginata. 101 Amanita. The warted Amanita, A. strobiliformis. 100

Boletus. The bitter Boletus, B. felleus. 102 Boletus. The bluing Boletus, B. cyanescens. 96 Boletus. The chestnut Boletus, B. castaneus. 123 Boletus. The chrome-footed Boletus, B. chromapes. 85 Boletus. The dingy Boletus, B. sordidus. 126 Boletus. The edible Boletus, B. edulis. 121 Boletus. The golden Boletus, B. chrysenteron. 123 Boletus. The granulated Boletus, B. granulatus. 96 Boletus. The gray Boletus, B. griseus. 103 Boletus. The half-golden Boletus, B. hemichrysus. 95 Boletus. Murray's Boletus, B. Murrayi. 85 Boletus. The ornate stemmed Boletus, B. ornatipes. 119 Boletus. The peppery Boletus, B. piperatus. 126 Boletus. The deceiving Boletus, B. illudens. 124 Boletus. The yellow-cracked Boletus, B. subtomentosus. 125 Boletus. The related Boletus, B. affinis. 128 Boletus. The rough Boletus, B. scaber. 122 Boletus. The short-stemmed Boletus, B. brevipes. 120 Boletus. The small yellowish Boletus, B. subluteus. 127 Boletus. The thick-stemmed Boletus, B. pachypus. 124 Boletus. The white Boletus, B. albus. 113

Cantharellus. The Chantarelle, C. cibarius. 88 Cantharellus. The funnel-shaped Chantarelle, C. infundibuliformis. 94 Cantharellus. The golden Chantarelle, C. aurantiacus. 94 Clitocybe. The waxy Clitocybe, C. laccata. 83 Clavaria. The club-shaped Clavaria, C. pistillaris. 138 Clavaria. The constricted Clavaria, C. stricta. 137 Clavaria. The pale yellow Clavaria, C. flava. 138 Clavaria. The unequal Clavaria, C. inequalis. 139 Collybia. The oak-loving Collybia, C. dryophila. 118 Collybia. The tufted Collybia, C. acervata. 115 Coprinus. The inky Coprinus, C. atramentarius. 105 Coprinus. The glistening Coprinus, C. micaceous. 100 Cortinarius. The cinnamon-colored Cortinarius, C. cinnamomeus. 115 Cortinarius. The violet-colored Cortinarius, C. albo violaceous. 129 Cortinarius. The wrinkled Cortinarius, C. corrugatus. 102 Cortinarius. The zoned Cortinarius, C. armillatus. 82 Crucibulum. The common crucible, C. vulgare. 141 Cyathus. The varnished cup, C. vernicosus. 142

Fistulina. The beefsteak mushroom, F. hepatica. 131

Geaster. The wandering earth star, G. hygrometricus. 143

Helvella. The cap-shaped Helvella, H. infula. 146 Hirneola. The Jew's ear, H. auricula Judae. 140 Hygrophorus. The blood-red Hygrophorus, H. puniceus. 87 Hygrophorus. The scarlet color Hygrophorus, H. coccineus. 87 Hygrophorus. The vermilion Hygrophorus, H. mineatus. 86 Hypholoma. The gray-gilled mushroom, H. capnoides. 117 Hypholoma. The perplexing mushroom, H. perplexum. 118 Hypholoma. The tufted mushroom, H. fasciculare. 89

Lactarius. The delicious Lactarius, L. deliciosus. 92 Lactarius. The colorless Lactarius, L. ichoratus. 81 Lactarius. The fleecy Lactarius, L. vellereus. 112 Lactarius. The mild Lactarius, L. mitissimus. 82 Lactarius. The orange brown Lactarius, L. volemus. 80 Lactarius. The peppery Lactarius, L. piperatus. 111 Lepiota. The smooth Lepiota, L. naucinoides. 110 Lepiota. The tall Lepiota, L. procera. 120 Lycoperdon. The cup-shaped puff-ball, L. cyathiforme. 142 Lycoperdon. The pear-shaped puff-ball, L. pyriforme. 143

Marasmius. The fairy ring mushroom, M. oreades. 99 Morchella. The edible Morel, M. esculenta. 146

Paxillus. The thin stemmed Paxillus, P. leptopus. 128 Peziza. The golden cup-shaped mushroom, P. aurantia. 145 Phallus. The fetid wood witch, P. impudicus. 144 Pholiota. The fat Pholiota, P. adiposa. 97 Pholiota. The showy Pholiota, P. spectabilis. 98 Pleurotus. The elm Pleurotus, P. ulmarius. 113 Pleurotus. The palatable Pleurotus, P. sapidus. 114 Pluteus. The fawn-colored Pluteus, P. cervinus. 105 Polyporus. The birch Polyporus, P. betulinus. 132 Polyporus. The black-stemmed Polyporus, P. picipes. 134 Polyporus. The changeable Polyporus, P. versicolor. 136 Polyporus. The elegant Polyporus, P. elegans. 136 Polyporus. The perennial Polyporus, P. perennis. 133 Polyporus. The sulphury Polyporus, P. sulphureus. 134 Polyporus. The shining Polyporus, P. lucidus. 135 Psathyrella. The widely-spread Psathyrella, P. disseminata. 116

Russula. The blood-red Russula, R. sanguinea. 78 Russula. The elegant Russula, R. lepida. 80 Russula. The forked Russula, R. furcata. 107 Russula. The green Russula, R. virescens. 106 Russula. The nauseating Russula, R. emetica. 77 Russula. The rosy-stemmed Russula, R. roseipes. 79

Schizophyllum. The common Schizophyllum, S. commune. 140 Scleroderma. The hard-skinned mushroom, S. vulgare. 141 Stropharia. The dry Stropharia, S. siccapes. 93

Tricholoma. The canary-colored Tricholoma, T. equestre. 91 Tricholoma. The imbricated Tricholoma, T. imbricata. 119 Tricholoma. The sulphury Tricholoma, T. sulphureum. 91 Typhula. The reed mace mushroom, T. phacorrhiza. 139



Table I. White spores. Table II. Red and pink spores. Table III. Ochraceous spores. Table IV. Dark purple and black spores.


In using this table the student should first ascertain the color of the spores of the specimen under investigation. This will determine the particular table to be applied to its further examination. If, for instance, he finds its spores to be white, he will know that Table I. is the one to be consulted. Turning to that table, he should recall the place of its growth, its habitat. Now, suppose it to have been found growing on a stump, he will, by looking at the first column, Habitat, of Table I., be informed that it must be one of the four genera named in the column with the heading "On Stumps." Let him then examine its "gills." If he finds them to be "adnate," he will be assured that it must be an "Armillaria," as no other genus is shown in the column as growing "on stumps" and which has gills that are adnate. But to make assurance doubly sure, he may proceed further to discover whether the specimen has also the ring called for in column headed "Ring." If it has, and was found growing in the summer, he may feel quite safe in classifying it as Armillaria. Sometimes the same genus will be found in more than one column. This ought not to mislead or confuse the beginner. In Table I., column headed "Volva," Amanita is mentioned, and also in the column headed "Ring," but this indicates that an Amanita has both the Volva (the universal veil) and the Ring. So in the columns headed by "Stem," Pleurotus is represented as having a lateral or eccentric stem, and also as having no stem. The meaning is, that some species of the genus have no stem, while there are others in which the stem is lateral or eccentric.

[Transcriber's Note: In this e-text, empty categories have been omitted from each table. Variations in spelling and phrasing are as in the original. The complete structure, with all options included, would be:

Size of plants, small. Plants deliquescent. Time of growth, summer. autumn. Habitat In woods, in uncultivated places, on ground. In grass and fields, on ground. On other plants—epiphytal. On stumps. On wood. On manure. Gills, free. adnate. decurrent. sinuous. serrated. distant. in folds. Volva. Veil adhering to margin of cap. Ring. Stem, cartilaginous. lateral, or eccentric. none. brittle. Pileus, scaly or warted. campanulate. silky, cracked or fibrillose. umbonate. umbilicate. striate. Pileus and Gills milky.]

Table I.—White Spores.

- -+ Size of plants, small. Collybia,[1] Mycena, Omphalia, Marasmius. + - - -+ Time of growth, summer. Amanita, Collybia, Mycena, Omphalia, Lepiota, Pleurotus, Russula,[2] Lactarius. + - - autumn. Amanita, Clitocybe, Collybia, Mycena, Omphalia, Hygrophorus, Lepiota, Marasmius, Armillaria, Pleurotus, Tricholoma, Russula, Cantharellus, Lactarius.[3] - - - -+ Habitat In woods, in uncultivated Amanita, places, on ground. Armillaria, Tricholoma,[4] Clitocybe, Collybia,[5] Hygrophorus, Lactarius, Russula, Cantharellus.[6] + - - In grass and fields, Lepiota, on ground. Tricholoma.[7] - -+ On other plants epiphytal. Mycena, Omphalia, Marasmius, Collybia. + - - On stumps. Panus, Armillaria, Lenzites, Lentinus. - -+ On wood. Trogia, Pleurotus, Schizophyllum,[8] Cantharellus.[9] + - - -+ Gills, free. Amanita, Lepiota. + - - adnate. Armillaria, Clitocybe, Collybia. - -+ decurrent. Omphalia, Clitocybe, Cantharellus, Hygrophorus, Lactarius.[10] + - - serrated. Lentinus. - -+ sinuous. Tricholoma, Pleurotus. + - - distant. Marasmius, Clitocybe. - -+ in folds. Cantharellus, Trogia. + - - -+ Volva. Amanita. + - - Veil adhering to margin of cap. Tricholoma. - -+ Ring. Amanita, Armillaria, Lepiota. + - - -+ Stem, cartilaginous. Marasmius, Mycena, Omphalia, Collybia. + - - lateral, or eccentric. Pleurotus, Panus. - -+ none. Lenzites, Pleurotus, Trogia, Schizophyllum, Panus. + - - brittle. Russula. - - - Pileus, scaly or warted. Amanita, Lepiota. - -+ campanulate. Mycena. + - - silky, cracked or Tricholoma, fibrillose. Clitocybe, Pleurotus. - -+ umbonate. Mycena. + - - umbilicate. Omphalia, Lactarius.[11] - -+ striate. Omphalia, Mycena. + - - -+ Pileus and Gills milky. Lactarius. + - -

[Footnote 1: Some small.] [Footnote 2: In late summer.] [Footnote 3: Generally in autumn.] [Footnote 4: Large species.] [Footnote 5: Few.] [Footnote 6: Some.] [Footnote 7: Small species.] [Footnote 8: Sometimes on rotten wood.] [Footnote 9: Some on rotten wood.] [Footnote 10: Adnato decurrent.] [Footnote 11: Becomes depressed in centre.]

Table II.—Red and Pink Spores.

- -+ Size of plants, small. Leptonia. + - - -+ Time of growth, summer. Volvaria, Pluteus, Enteloma, Leptonia, Nolanea, Eccilia. + - - autumn. Volvaria, Pluteus, Nolanea, - - - -+ Habitat In woods, in uncultivated Volvaria,[1] places, on ground. Enteloma, Clitopilus, Leptonia,[2] Nolanea,[3] Claudopus. + - - In grass and fields, Nolanea. on ground. - -+ On stumps. Pluteus.[4] + - - On wood. Volvaria,[5] Claudopus. - - - Gills, free. Nolanea, Pluteus, Annularia, Volvaria. - -+ adnate. Nolanea, Enteloma.[6] + - - decurrent. Eccilia, Clitopilus, Claudopus. - -+ sinuous. Enteloma, Claudopus. + - - -+ Volva. Volvaria. + - - Veil adhering to margin of cap. Enteloma. - -+ Ring. Annularia. + - - -+ Stem, cartilaginous. Nolanea, Leptonia. + - - lateral, or eccentric. Claudopus. - -+ none. Claudopus. + - - -+ Pileus, scaly or warted. Leptonia. + - - campanulate. Leptonia, Nolanea. - -+ silky, cracked or Entoloma, fibrillose. Pluteus.[7] + - - umbonate. Pluteus.[8] - -+ umbilicate. Leptonia, Eccilia. + - - striate. Nolanea. - - -

[Footnote 1: Damp ground.] [Footnote 2: Dry hills.] [Footnote 3: Wet places in woods.] [Footnote 4. On or close to stumps.] [Footnote 5: On rotten wood.] [Footnote 6: Almost free.] [Footnote 7: Often fibrillose or floccose.] [Footnote 8: Somewhat.]

Table III.—Ochraceous Spores.

- - - Time of growth, summer. Pholiota, Inocybe, Naucoria. - -+ autumn. Inocybe, Flammula, Pholiota, Galera, Hebeloma, Crepedotus, Naucoria, Cortinarius. + - - - - Habitat In woods, in uncultivated Inocybe, places, on ground. Pholiota,[1] Hebeloma, Flammula, Paxillus, Cortinarius, Naucoria, Galera. - -+ In grass and fields, Cortinarius. on ground. + - - On other plants epiphytal. Naucoria. - -+ On stumps. Pholiota, Paxillus. + - - On wood. Claudopus, Flammula, Crepidotus, Naucoria. - - - Gills, free. Naucoria. - -+ adnate. Naucoria, Pholiota,[2] Flammula, Cortinarius, Hebeloma. + - - decurrent. Flammula, Paxillus. - -+ sinuous. Hebeloma. + - - -+ Veil adhering to margin of cap. Hebeloma, Cortinarius, Inocybe. + - - Ring. Pholiota, Cortinarius.[3] - - - Stem, cartilaginous. Tubaria, Naucoria, Galera. - -+ lateral, or excentric. Crepidotus. + - - none. Crepidotus. - - - Pileus, scaly or warted. Flammula, Inocybe. - -+ campanulate. Galera, Pluteolus. + - - silky, cracked or Inocybe. fibrillose. - -+ umbonate. Inocybe. + - - striate. Pluteolus, Galera. - - -

[Footnote 1: Damp ground.] [Footnote 2: Somewhat free.] [Footnote 3: Some with rings.]

Table IV.—Dark Purple and Black Spores.

- -+ Size of plants, small. Psathyrella. + - - Plants deliquescent. Coprinus, Bolbitius. - - - Time of growth, summer. Coprinus, Stropharia, Panaeolus. - -+ autumn. Coprinus, Psaliota, Panaeolus, Hypholoma. + - - - - Habitat In woods, in uncultivated Stropharia, places, on ground. Psathyra. - -+ In grass and fields, Psaliota. on ground. + - - On other plants epiphytal. Stropharia. - -+ On stumps. Hypholoma, Psathyra. + - - On wood. Psathyra,[1] Hypholoma. - -+ On manure. Stropharia, Panaeolus, Psathyrella, Coprinus, Bolbitius. + - - -+ Gills, free. Chetonia, Psalliota, Psathyrella, Coprinus, Bolbitius. + - - adnate. Stropharia, Hypholoma, Psathyrella. - -+ decurrent. Gomphidius. + - - sinuous. Hypholoma. - - - Veil adhering to margin. Hypholoma. - -+ Ring. Stropharia Psalliota, Gomphidius.[2] + - - -+ Stem, cartilaginous. Psathyra, Psilocybe. + - - -+ Pileus, campanulate. Psathyra, Psathyrella,[3] Coprinus, Gomphidius.[4] + - - striate. Psathyra, Psathyrella. - - -

[Footnote 1: On rotten wood.] [Footnote 2: A floccose ring.] [Footnote 3: At first, adpressed to stem.] [Footnote 4: Top shaped.]


Previous Part     1  2
Home - Random Browse