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The Violin vaialín - Its Famous féimas Makers méikarz and Their Imitators ímiteitarz
by George jórj Hart hárt
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His workmanship wárkmanship in numerous númaras instances ínstansaz is, without doubt dáut, careless kérlas; but, even in the instruments ínstramants where this negligence néglajans is most observed abzárvd, there is an appearance apírans which at once wáns excites iksáits the admiration edmaréishan of the beholder bihóuldar, and forces fórsiz from the most exacting igzékting the admission edmíshan that, after every deduction didákshan on account akáunt of want of finish fínish, there remains riméinz a style stáil defying difáiing all imitation imatéishan. Who can fail féil to recognise the quaint kwéint head héd, into which he seems símz to have thrown thróun such singular síngyalar character kériktar by the mere mír turn tárn of his chisel chízal, and which, when imitated ímateitid, always partakes of the ludicrous lúdakras, and betrays bitréiz the unhappy anhépi copyist who is unable anéibal to compass kámpas that necessary nésaseri turn tárn! In matters métarz of the highest háiast art árt it is always so; the possessor pazésar of genius jínyas is constantly kánstantli showing shóuing some last resort rizórt, as it were, impregnable imprégnabal to imitation imatéishan.

The sound-hole sáundhóul, also, of Guarneri garnéri always preserves prazárvz its distinctive distínktiv character kériktar, and a grotesque groutésk humour which at once wáns pleases plíziz the eye ái, though dhóu it is found to vary véri considerably kansídarabli with the three periods píriadz of his life. Again, the button bátan—that portion pórshan of the back against which the heel híl of the neck nék rests résts, which forms fórmz a prominent prámanant mark márk in all Violins vaialínz, and an evidence évadans of style stáil, has a remarkably rimárkabli pronounced pranáunst development divélapmant in the Violins vaialínz of Guarneri garnéri, and, in fact fékt, may be said to give a vitality vaitélati to the whole hóul work. There are many instances ínstansaz where excellent éksalant and original aríjanal specimens spésamanz of workmanship wárkmanship have been, speaking spíking artistically artístikli, ruined rúand for want of skill skíl in handling héndling that simple símpal factor féktar of the Violin vaialín.

Having héving endeavoured to point out the chief chíf features fícharz in the work and style stáil of this remarkable rimárkabal maker méikar, I have only to add éd that his imitators ímiteitarz would far fár exceed iksíd in number all the Violin-makers vaialín-méikarz that the city síti of Cremona ever évar sheltered shéltard. There has ever évar been a diversity divársati of purpose párpas with these Guarneri garnéri imitators ímiteitarz, distinct distínkt from those of Stradivari and others ádharz. They may be divided diváidad into three orders órdarz, viz., the bona bóuna fide fáid copyist, the subtle sátal copyist, and the wholesale hóulseil copyist. The first sets séts about making méiking his instrument ínstramant resemble rizémbal the original aríjanal as closely klóusli as possible pásabal, and when completed kamplítad, sends séndz it forth fórth as a copy kápi, and nothing náthing else éls. Among amáng these legitimate lajítamat imitators ímiteitarz were Lupot, Gand, Vuillaume, and others ádharz. The subtle sátal copyist takes téiks advantage edvéntij of the disturbed distárbd styles stáilz belonging bilónging to Guarneri garnéri, coupled kápald with his misfortunes misfórchanz, manufactures menyafékcharz and translates trenzléits at will. He "spots spáts" a back on an old fiddle fídal, in which he sees síz Guarneri garnéri in embryo émbriou; he secures sikyúrz it. In his possession pazéshan is a belly béli which, with a little skilful manoeuvring of sound-holes sáund-hóulz and corners kórnarz, may be accommodated akámadeitad to the back. The sides sáidz need well matching méching in point of colour; workmanship wárkmanship is purely pyúrli secondary sékanderi. The scroll skróul he sets séts himself himsélf to carve kárv, giving gíving it a hideous hídias, burglar-like bárglar-láik appearance apírans. The inevitable inévatabal label léibal is inserted insártad, and the Violin vaialín leaves lívz the translator's trensléitar hand hénd a "Prison prízan Joseph jóusaf." Now comes kámz the difficulty dífakalti. How is this "Joseph jóusaf," unaccustomed anakástamd to elbow élbou his legitimate lajítamat namesakes néimseiks in the world of Fiddles fídalz, to maintain meintéin the character kériktar he has assumed asúmd? The subtle sátal copyist puzzles pázalz his brain bréin without arriving aráiving at anything énithing very satisfactory setasféktri. He resolves rizálvz to slip slíp it into a sale séil of household háushould effects ifékts. It is described diskráibd in the catalogue kétalog, in glowing glóuing terms tármz, as having héving been in the possession pazéshan of Geminiani (he not being alive aláiv to dispute dispyút the assertion asárshan). Previous prívias to the sale séil the instrument ínstramant is viewed vyúd. The knowing nóuing ones wánz pass pés it by with contempt kantémpt. The half héf-informed turn tárn it over and over, puzzled pázald, and replace ripléis it in its case disconsolate. The thoroughly thárouli ignorant ígnarant looks lúks inside insáid; "Joseph jóusaf Guarnerius Cremonensis faciebat 1724," in old type táip, stares stérz him in the face féis; he puts púts the bow báu on the strings stríngz and demands diméndz the maker's méikar name néim—his thoughts thóts are echoed ékoud back in gentle jéntal sounds sáundz: "Joseph jóusaf Guarnerius." He returns ritárnz it to its case, shuts sháts the lid líd, and exultingly sallies séliz forth fórth, congratulating kangréchaleiting himself himsélf again upon apán his good fortune fórchan in having héving at last the opportunity apartúnati of securing sikyúring the real ríl thing thíng at the price práis of "a mere mír song sóng." The time of sale séil arrives aráivz. The beauties byútiz of the instrument ínstramant are dwelt dwélt upon apán by the auctioneer akshanír; he begs bégz to be permitted parmítad to say two hundred hándrad guineas gíniz to commence kaméns with. Silence sáilans around. "Well, gentlemen jéntalmin, shall shél I say one hundred hándrad and fifty fífti guineas gíniz?" Dogged dógd silence sáilans. "Come, come, gentlemen jéntalmin, this is mere mír trifling tráifling. A 'Joseph jóusaf Guarnerius' for one hundred hándrad and fifty fífti guineas gíniz! Shall shél I say one hundred hándrad guineas gíniz?" The customary kástameri witty wíti frequenter of sale-rooms séilrúmz, unable anéibal to restrain ristréin himself himsélf longer lóngar, cries kráiz out, "I'll give yer yár a pound páund!" The auctioneer akshanír sees síz the whole hóul thing thíng; it is a copy kápi that he is selling séling, and not the original aríjanal. The pound páund bid bíd is capped képt by another from our friend frénd, who fondly fándli fancies fénsiz himself himsélf behind biháind the scenes sínz. The subtle sátal copyist, seeing síing his eagerness ígarnas, bids bídz on his bid bíd, and the "Joseph jóusaf Guarnerius del dél Gesu" falls fólz with the hammer hémar to the anxious énkshas buyer báiar for ten tén pounds páundz. He demands diméndz possession pazéshan of it at once wáns, in case another may be substituted sábstatutad, and retires ritáirz, perfectly párfaktli satisfied sétasfaid with his day's work. The wholesale hóulseil copyists are those who manufacture menyafékchar Violins vaialínz in Bavaria bavéria and France fréns in large lárj factories féktariz, where the Violins vaialínz undergo andargóu all kinds káindz of processes prásesaz to make them modern mádarn antiques entíks. The wood wúd is put into ovens ávanz and baked béikt until it assumes asúmz the required rikwáiard brownness, or steeped stípt in strong stróng acids ésadz until it becomes bikámz more like a piece pís of charred chárd wood wúd than anything énithing else éls; the sharp shárp edges éjaz are removed rimúvd by the file fáil; the wear wér of years is effected iféktad in a few moments móumants by rubbing rábing down those parts párts subject sabjékt to friction fríkshan; it is ticketed tíkatid and dated déitid, regardless ragárdlas alike aláik of orthography orthágrafi and chronology kranálaji, the date déit being generally jénarali before or after the original's aríjanal existence egzístans. These imitations imitéishanz are so barefaced as to render réndar them comparatively kampérativli harmless hármlas.

GUIDANTI, Giovanni jiouváni, Bologna balóuni, about 1740. High hái model mádal; sound-hole sáundhóul long; purfling badly bédli let lét in; the outer áutar form fórm inelegant, particularly partíkyalarli the middle mídal bouts báuts. At the Exhibition eksabíshan at Milan malán, 1881, a Viola vaióula d'Amore was exhibited igzíbatad, signed sáind "Joannes Guidantus, fecit Bononiae, anno énou 1715," ornamented órnamentid with a beautiful byútafal head héd artistically artístikli carved kárvd, representing reprizénting a blindfolded bláindfouldid Cupid kyúpid.

GUILLAMI, Spanish spénish family fémali of Violin-makers vaialín-méikarz, about 1680-1780.

HARTON hártan, Michael máikal, Padua pédyua, 1600. Lute-maker lútméikar.

KERLINO, Joan jóun, 1449. Maker méikar of Viols. Numerous númaras instruments ínstramants of the Violin vaialín shape shéip have been attributed atríbyatad to this maker méikar, particularly partíkyalarli those of quaint kwéint appearance apírans, but it is doubtful dáutfal whether wédhar he made any instruments ínstramants but those of the Viol type táip.

LAGETTO, Luigi luíji, Paris péris, about 1753.

LANDOLFI landóulfi, Carlo kárlou Ferdinando, Milan malán, 1750.

Carolus kéralas Ferdinandus Landulphus, fecit Mediolani in Via váia S. Margaritae anno énou 17—

Though dhóu he belonged bilóngd to the latest léitast of the Italian itélyan makers méikarz, his merits mérats were of no ordinary órdaneri kind káind. His instruments ínstramants vary véri very much, and hence héns, probably prábabli, a confusion kanfyúzhan has arisen arízan as to there being two makers méikarz of this name néim, which is not the case. Those instruments ínstramants which have the bright bráit red réd varnish várnish are certainly sártanli the best bést. The varnish várnish is very transparent trenspérant, and, the wood wúd being strikingly stráikingli handsome hénsam, the effect ifékt is most pleasing plízing. The pattern pétarn is not a copy kápi of Guarneri garnéri, as often ófan stated stéitad, but thoroughly thárouli original aríjanal. His sound-hole sáundhóul cannot kénat be considered kansídard an effective iféktiv one, and is not in keeping kíping with the work. The outer áutar edge éj is generally jénarali grooved. The scroll skróul is weak wík. His Violoncellos are mostly móustli of small size sáiz. Some of this maker's méikar instruments ínstramants are very unfinished anfínisht, many not being purfled, and having héving only a single síngal coat kóut of varnish várnish.

LANZA lénza, Antonio entóuniou Maria maría, 1674. Copied kápid the Brescian makers méikarz.

LAVAZZA, Santino santínou, Milan malán, about 1700.

Santino santínou Lavazza fece in Milano milánou in Contrada larga 17—

LAVAZZA, Antonio entóuniou, Milan malán.

Lavazza Antonio entóuniou Maria maría fece in Milano milánou in Contrada larga 17—

LINAROLLI, Venturo, Venice vénas, 1520. A maker méikar of Viols.

LOLY, Jacopo, Naples néipalz, 17th century sénchari. Of the Grancino type táip. Scroll skróul diminutive dimínyativ. Yellow yélou varnish várnish. Material matírial very hard hárd. Flat flét model mádal. He made a few large lárj tenors ténarz.

MAGGINI, Giovanni jiouváni Paolo páulou, Brescia bréscha, 1590.

Gio Paolo páulou Maggini in Brescia bréscha.

This famous féimas maker méikar followed fáloud Gasparo da Salo sálou, and was his pupil pyúpal. It is surmised sarmáizd that he may have died dáid of the plague pléig in or about the year 1632. No Italian itélyan maker méikar is more frequently fríkwantli mistaken mistéikan than Maggini. Any instrument ínstramant having héving ornamentations on the back in the shape shéip of purfled scroll-work skróul-wárk is at once wáns said to be by Paolo páulou Maggini. Barak bárak Norman nórman, the old English ínglish maker méikar, thus dhás comes kámz in for a large lárj share shér of Maggini's patronage pétranij, as also a vast vést number of early árli German járman makers méikarz, who adopted adáptad similar símalar devices diváisaz; to the real ríl connoisseur kanasár, however, there is no difficulty dífakalti in distinguishing distíngwishing the work. A more pardonable error érar is the confusion kanfyúzhan of Gasparo da Salo sálou and Maggini, which is of frequent fríkwant occurrence akárans. The Double dábal Basses bésiz of these two makers méikarz have much in common káman to the eye ái of the not deeply dípli versed várst examiner igzémanar. Maggini, however, was not so successful saksésfal as his compeer in the selection salékshan of the form fórm of his instruments ínstramants. In them we miss mís the harmony hármani of outline áutlain belonging bilónging to those of Gasparo, particularly partíkyalarli as relates riléits to his Double dábal Basses bésiz. Gasparo's Violins vaialínz are less lés harmonious harmóunias in design dizáin, and evince ivíns his unsettled ansétald views vyúz as to the form fórm they should take; a perfectly párfaktli natural nécharal circumstance sárkamstens when the infantile ínfantil state stéit of the Violin vaialín in his day is considered kansídard. The outline áutlain of Maggini is broad bród, but lacks léks the classic klésik symmetry símatri of the rare rér old Brescian maker méikar. The form fórm is flat flét, and the means mínz which he adopted adáptad in order órdar to obtain abtéin a full fúl and telling téling tone tóun were very complete kamplít. The sides sáidz are frequently fríkwantli shallow shélou, and in accordance akórdans with the outline áutlain. With others ádharz who followed fáloud him, he evidently évadantli recognised the necessity nasésati of reducing radúsing the height háit of the sides sáidz in proportion prapórshan to the dimensions diménshanz of the instrument ínstramant. The sound-hole sáundhóul is long and pointed póintad, and admirably édmarabli set in the instrument ínstramant. The scroll skróul is primitive prímativ, but boldly bóuldli cut kát, and clearly klírli marks márks an onward ónward step stép from the somewhat sámwát crude krúd production pradákshan of Gasparo, the back of which is not grooved, or but slightly sláitli. Maggini's varnish várnish is of brown bráun or yellow yélou colour, and of good quality kwálati. The instruments ínstramants covered kávard with the brown bráun varnish várnish are often ófan without any device diváis on their backs béks, and seldom séldam have two rows róuz of purfling. De Beriot, the famous féimas Belgian béljan Violinist vaialínast, used one of Maggini's Violins vaialínz, and, in consequence kánsakwans, their value vélyu was much increased inkríst.[12]

[Footnote fútnout 12: The genuine jényawan labels léibalz are undated andéitid, as in the case of his master méstar, Gasparo da Salo sálou.]

MALER méilar, Laux lóks, Bologna balóuni, about 1450. Maker méikar of Lutes lúts. Maler méilar appears apírz to have been regarded ragárdad by Lutinists as the Stradivari of Lutes lúts. Thomas támas Mace méis informs infórmz us in his "Musick's myúsik Monument mányumant," 1676, they were sold sóuld for as much as one hundred hándrad pounds páundz each, though dhóu often ófan "pittiful, old, batter'd, crack'd things." He tells télz us he has "often ófan seen sín Lutes lúts of three or four pounds páundz price práis far fár more illustrious ilástrias and taking téiking to a common káman eye ái." History hístari repeats ripíts itself itsélf at every turn tárn. The uneducated anéjukeitid eye ái of to-day túdéi is equally íkwali apt épt to regard ragárd a Mirecourt or Bavarian bavérian copy kápi with as much favour as a genuine jényawan Cremona. Mace méis proceeds prasídz to instruct instrákt the "common káman eye ái." "First, know that an old Lute lút is better bétar than a new one." Thus dhás also with Viols: "We chiefly chífli value vélyu old instruments ínstramants before new; for by experience ikspírians they are found to be far fár the best bést." "The pores pórz of the wood wúd have a more and free frí liberty líbarti to move múv, stir stár, or secretly síkritli vibrate váibreit, by which means mínz the air ér—which is the life of all things, both animate énamat and inanimate inénamat—has a more free frí and easie recourse ríkors to pass pés and repass ripés." This explanation eksplanéishan accounts akáunts, in part at least líst, for the superiority supirióriti of old over new instruments ínstramants, and in language léngwaj delightfully diláitfali quaint kwéint and simple símpal.

MANTEGAZZA, Pietro piétrou Giovanni jiouváni, Milan malán.

Pietro piétrou Giov Fratelli Mantegazza nella néla Contrada di Santa sénta Margarita margaríta in Milano milánou al él Segno dell dél' Angelo énjalou 17—

Petrus pétras Joes jóuz. Fratresq Mantegatia Mediolani in Via váia S. Margarite anno énou 1760.

Petrus pétras Joannes Mantegatia, fecit Mediolani in Via váia S. Margaritae 1784.

Vincenzo vinsénzou Lancetti states stéits that "about 1800 the Brothers brádharz Mantegazza were restorers of instruments ínstramants, and were often ófan entrusted entrástid by French frénch and Italian itélyan artistes to lengthen léngthan the necks néks of their Violins vaialínz after the Paris péris fashion féshan, an example igzémpal which was followed fáloud by amateurs ématarz and professors prafésarz all over North nórth Italy ítali." This extract ékstrekt shows shóuz that the short shórt necks néks were dispensed dispénst with in Paris péris towards tawórdz the close klóus of the last century sénchari, and doubtless dáutlas Viotti was the chief chíf instigator ínstageitar with regard ragárd to the change chéinj. The family fémali of Mantegazza, as Violin-makers vaialín-méikarz, date déit back to about the middle mídal of the eighteenth eitínth century sénchari. They appear apír to have made many Tenors ténarz. The workmanship wárkmanship is good, and also the modelling of the later-dated léitar-déitid instruments ínstramants. The older óuldar ones wánz are rather rédhar high hái, but the varnish várnish is brilliant brílyant. The wood wúd is somewhat sámwát hard hárd. Count káunt Cozio was a patron péitran of the Brothers brádharz Mantegazza, and he appears apírz to have increased inkríst his knowledge nálaj of Italian itélyan Violins vaialínz from information infarméishan acquired akwáiard from them.

MARATTI, Verona varóuna, about 1700.

MARCHETTI markéti, Enrico enríkou, Turin tyúrin, contemporary kantémpareri.

MARIANI mariáni, Antonio entóuniou, Pesaro, from about 1580 to 1619. Long middle mídal bouts báuts and corners kórnarz; style stáil and work very primitive prímativ, mostly móustli double dábal purfled.

MEIBERI, Francesco frenchéskou, Leghorn léghorn, 1750.

MESSEGUER, Spanish spénish, about 1646.

MEZADRI, Alessandro aleizándrou, Ferrara farára, 1690-1722. The pattern pétarn is inelegant, and the sound-holes sáund-hóulz too close klóus.

MEZADRI, Francesco frenchéskou, Milan malán, about 1712.

MIALFI, Joannes, 1769. The label léibal is in Spanish spénish. Ordinary órdaneri character kériktar of work.

MONTAGNANA, Domenico douméinikou, Cremona and Venice vénas, 1700-1740.

Dominicus Montagnana Sub sáb Signo Cremonae Venetiis 17—

Pupil pyúpal of Antonio entóuniou Stradivari. After leaving líving the workshop wárkshap of his famous féimas master méstar, he followed fáloud his art árt in Cremona. He afterwards éftarwardz removed rimúvd to Venice vénas, where Violin vaialín manufacture menyafékchar was in the most flourishing flárishing condition kandíshan, and adopted adáptad the name néim of "Cremona" as the sign sáin of his house. In days déiz when houses háusaz were unnumbered, tradesmen tréidzman were found by their sign sáin, and they were often ófan puzzled pázald to select salékt one both distinctive distínktiv and effective iféktiv. The Violin-makers vaialín-méikarz of Italy ítali, having héving exhausted igzóstad the calendar kélandar of its Saints séints emblematic emblamétik of Harmony hármani, left it to the Venetian vaníshan to honour the name néim of himself himsélf and the city síti which was the seat sít of the greatest gréitast Violin vaialín manufacture menyafékchar the world had witnessed wítnast. In Venice vénas he soon sún attained atéind great popularity papyalérati, and made the splendid spléndad specimens spésamanz of his art árt with which we are familiar famílyar. The instructions instrákshanz which he had received rasívd at Cremona enabled enéibald him to surpass sarpés all in Venice vénas. He gained géind great knowledge nálaj of the qualities kwálatiz of material matírial, and of the thicknesses to be observed abzárvd; and, moreover moróuvar, he carried kérid with him the superior supíriar form fórm of the Cremonese school skúl, and the glorious glórias varnish várnish. Mr. Reade réd names néimz him "the mighty máiti Venetian vaníshan," an appellation epaléishan not a whit wít too high-sounding hái-sáunding, though dhóu it may appear apír so to those not acquainted akwéintid with his finest fáinast works wárks. The truth trúth is, that Montagnana is less lés known nóun than any of the great makers méikarz. For years his works wárks have been roaming róuming about, bearing béring the magic méjik labels léibalz of "Guarnerius filius Andreae andréia," "Carlo kárlou Bergonzi," and sometimes samtáimz of "Pietro piétrou Guarneri garnéri," although there is barely bérli a particle pártakal of resemblance rizémblans between the works wárks of our author óthar and the makers méikarz named néimd, whose húz labels léibalz have been used as floats flóuts.

Montagnana was in every way original aríjanal, but the fraud fród that has foisted fóistid his works wárks upon apán makers méikarz who were better bétar known nóun has prevented privéntid his name néim from being associated asóusieitad with many of his choicest chóisast instruments ínstramants, and deprived dipráivd him of the place which he would long since have held héld in the estimation estaméishan of the true trú connoisseur kanasár. This injustice injástis, however, is fast fést passing pésing away awéi; as ever évar, genius jínyas comes kámz forth fórth triumphant traiámfant.

The time is near nír when the "mighty máiti Venetian vaníshan" and Carlo kárlou Bergonzi will occupy ákyapai positions pazíshanz little less lés considerable kansídarabal than that of the two great masters méstarz. Already olrédi the merits mérats of these makers méikarz are daily déili more appreciated apríshieitid, and when the scarcity skérsiti of their genuine jényawan works wárks is considered kansídard, it becomes bikámz a matter métar of certainty sártanti that their rank rénk must be raised réizd to the point indicated índakeitad.

It is much to be regretted rigrétid that both Montagnana and Bergonzi did not leave lív more numerous númaras specimens spésamanz behind biháind them. Would that each had been as prolific proulífik as their common káman master méstar! We should then have inherited inhératid a store stór from which our coming káming Violinists vaialínasts and Violoncellists could have possessed pazést themselves dhemsélvz of splendid spléndad instruments ínstramants, when those of Guarneri garnéri and Stradivari were placed pléist far fár beyond biánd reach rích.

In these times táimz, when the love láv of music myúzik is rapidly répadli developing divélaping itself itsélf among amáng all classes klésaz, the question kwéschan of supply saplái must attract atrékt notice nóutas. The prime práim question kwéschan with respect rispékt to Violins vaialínz of the highest háiast character kériktar is not now as to price práis, but as to the supply saplái of limited límatad and daily déili decreasing dikrísing material matírial; and the doubtful dáutfal point is, not whether wédhar purchasers párchasarz are to be found who may not be unwilling anwíling to pay péi the increased inkríst cost kást consequent kánsakwant upon apán scarcity skérsiti, but whether wédhar the instruments ínstramants required rikwáiard will be available avéilabal in sufficient safíshant numbers námbarz to satisfy sétasfai the demands diméndz of those quite prepared pripérd to gratify grétafai their wishes wíshiz for the possession pazéshan of an instrument ínstramant of the first rank rénk. A single síngal glance gléns is sufficient safíshant to remind rimáind us that the list líst of makers méikarz of the highest háiast class klés, and particularly partíkyalarli of original aríjanal artists ártists, is scanty skénti indeed indíd. There are a few copyists, it is true trú, notably nóutabli Lupot and Panormo, whose húz instruments ínstramants must take a considerable kansídarabal position pazíshan, but on the whole hóul the demand diménd will far fár exceed iksíd the supply saplái. The difficulty dífakalti here noticed nóutast is intensified inténsafaid from the fact fékt of the Violin vaialín being sought sót after as it is, unlike anláik any other musical myúzikal instrument ínstramant, for the cabinets kébanats of the collector kaléktar as well as for actual ékchawal use—a state stéit of things perfectly párfaktli natural nécharal when its artistic artístik beauties byútiz are considered kansídard. Violinists vaialínasts possibly pásabli consider kansídar they smart smárt under a sense séns of wrong róng at the hands héndz of collectors kaléktarz who thus dhás indulge indálj their taste téist; but, on the other hand hénd, we have reason rízan to be grateful gréitfal to the lovers lávarz of art árt for having héving stayed stéid the hand hénd of Time in demolishing dimálishing these treasures trézharz.

To return ritárn to the subject sabjékt of this present prézant notice nóutas: it is evident évadant that when Montagnana left the workshop wárkshap of Stradivari, he gave géiv full fúl scope skóup to his creative kriéitiv powers páuarz. He at once wáns began bigén to construct kanstrákt upon apán principles prínsapalz of his own, and thus dhás followed fáloud the example igzémpal of his fellow-worker félou-wárkar, Carlo kárlou Bergonzi. If comparison kampérasan be made between the work of Stradivari and that of Domenico douméinikou Montagnana, with regard ragárd to detail ditéil, the two makers méikarz will not be found to have much in common káman. It is when Montagnana's instrument ínstramant is viewed vyúd as a whole hóul that the teaching tíching of Stradivari is evidenced évidanst. A similar símalar assertion asárshan may, in a lesser lésar degree digrí, be made in the case of Carlo kárlou Bergonzi. To dissect daisékt the several sévral points póints of difference dífarans is a simple símpal matter métar. If we begin bigín with the outline áutlain, that of Montagnana has not the smoothness smúdhnas and grace gréis of the Stradivarian type táip; the upper ápar and lower lóuar curves kárvz are flattened flétand, while those of the centre séntar are extended iksténdad. The sound-hole sáundhóul partakes more of the character kériktar of Guarneri garnéri; the scroll skróul is larger lárjar, and the turns tárnz bolder bóuldar than in the Stradivari form fórm. These, then, may be considered kansídard to be the chief chíf points póints wherein werín, if viewed vyúd as separate sépareit items áitamz, Montagnana seems símz to have varied vérid from his master méstar: and hence héns we may obtain abtéin some idea aidía of the amount amáunt of originality arijanéliti belonging bilónging to this maker méikar—an amount amáunt, indeed indíd, not inferior infíriar to that of any Cremonese artist ártast that can be cited sáitad. The increasing inkrísing popularity papyalérati of Montagnana's instruments ínstramants is sufficient safíshant proof prúf that his design dizáin was fraught frót with much that is valuable vélyabal. In departing dipárting from the form fórm of Antonio entóuniou Stradivari, Carlo kárlou Bergonzi and Montagnana doubtless dáutlas intended inténdad to bring bríng out in a stronger stróngar degree digrí certain sártan particular partíkyalar qualities kwálatiz of tone tóun: at the same time we may be sure shúr that they had no idea aidía of attempting atémpting to improve imprúv upon apán Stradivari in his own field fíld of work, for they must have well known nóun the Herculean harkyúlian character kériktar of such a task tésk. On the other hand hénd, had these remarkable rimárkabal makers méikarz been mere mír copyists, they would certainly sártanli have handed héndad down to us more instruments ínstramants moulded in exact igzékt accord akórd with the style stáil of their great teacher tíchar; while, at the same time, we should have lost lóst many variations veriéishanz, which are at present prézant not only an evidence évadans of their fertility fartílati of resource rísors, but also in themselves dhemsélvz most pleasing plízing objects ábjekts. If, in the sister sístar art árt, Tintoretto had made it his sole sóul business bíznas to copy kápi Titian tíshan, the world would have been rich rích in copies kápiz of Titian tíshan, but poor púr in Tintorettos.

The varnish várnish of Montagnana has long excited iksáitad the admiration edmaréishan of connoisseurs kanasárz throughout thruáut Europe yúrap. The extreme ekstrím richness ríchnas and velvet-like vélvat-láik softness sóftnas which are its characteristics keraktarístiks constitute kánstatut it a fitting fíting countersign of the workmanship wárkmanship of this great maker méikar, an artist ártast of the first magnitude mégnatud. He made Violins vaialínz, Tenors ténarz, and Violoncellos. His Violins vaialínz are of two sizes sáizaz.

MONTALDI, Gregorio grigóriou, Cremona, 1730. Copied kápid Stradivari.

MORELLA moréla, ——, Mantua ménchua, about 1550. M. Fetis, in his "Biographie Universelle des Musiciens," states stéits that he was famous féimas for his Viols and Lutes lúts. S. Ang éng. Maffei méfai, in his "Annali di Mantova" (fol. 147), highly háili praises préizaz the instruments ínstramants made by Morella moréla.

NADOTTI, Giuseppe jisépi, Piacenza. A Violin vaialín by this maker méikar was in 1881 exhibited igzíbatad at the Milan malán Exhibition eksabíshan, dated déitid 1767.

NELLA néla, Raffaele rafaiélei, Brescia bréscha, copied kápid Maggini.

ORTEGA ortéiga, ——, Madrid madríd, about 1840. Maker méikar and restorer ristórar of instruments ínstramants.

PANDOLFI pandóulfi, Antonio entóuniou, Venice vénas. A Violin vaialín of this make, dated déitid 1719, was among amáng the instruments ínstramants exhibited igzíbatad at the Milan malán Exhibition eksabíshan in 1881.

PANORMO, Vincenzo vinsénzou, Palermo palérmou, born bórn about 1740, died dáid 1813. This maker méikar was one of the most successful saksésfal followers fálouarz of Antonio entóuniou Stradivari. Panormo and Lupot share shér the palm pám as copyists of the great Cremonese master méstar. Neither nídhar appears apírz to have attempted atémptad to create kriéit a model mádal of his own; their sole sóul aim éim was to imitate ímateit to the utmost átmoust the various vérias patterns pétarnz of Stradivari, Guarneri garnéri, and Amati amáti, but they principally prínsipli confined kanfáind themselves dhemsélvz to Stradivari.

Vincenzo vinsénzou Panormo left Italy ítali in early árli life, and settled sétald for a short shórt time in Paris péris, from which city síti a few of his instruments ínstramants are dated déitid. From Paris péris he removed rimúvd to London lándan, where he remained riméind many years. He also visited vízatad Ireland áiarland, where he made, it is said, several sévral beautiful byútafal instruments ínstramants from an old maple méipal billiard-table bílyard-téibal, with which he was fortunate fórchanat enough ináf to meet mít. He was of a restless réstlas temperament témpramant, which showed shóud itself itsélf in continual kantínyual self-imposed sélf-impóuzd changes chéinjaz. He would not, or could not, permit parmít his reputation repyatéishan to grow gróu steadily stédali, by residing rizáiding long in one place, but as soon sún as fame féim was within his grasp grésp, he sacrificed sékrafaist the work of years by removing rimúving to an entirely intáiarli new field fíld of labour léibaur.

Panormo furnishes fárnishiz us with another example igzémpal of the certain sártan appreciation aprishiéishan, sooner súnar or later léitar, of exceptional iksépshanal talents télants. No matter métar how trifling tráifling the circumstances sárkamstensaz under which gifted gíftad men mén have laboured, some time or other their genius jínyas is discovered diskávard, and acknowledged eknálijd with its due award awórd, if not of fortune fórchan, at least líst of fame féim. The peculiar pakyúlyar circumstances sárkamstensaz under which Panormo lived láivd would have been sufficient safíshant in the case of most men mén to dwarf dwórf all efforts éfarts. Unable anéibal to obtain abtéin readily rédali that patronage pétranij to which his abilities abílatiz justly jástli entitled entáitald him, he removed rimúvd from city síti to city síti, hoping hóuping to discover diskávar a resting-place résting-pléis, in which favour might attend aténd his art árt. No doubt dáut this was a mistaken mistéikan course kórs, and one which robbed rábd his work of the attention aténshan which a mind máind undisturbed andistárbd by the care kér of existence egzístans can bestow bistóu; nevertheless nevardhalés his natural nécharal gifts gífts had a vitality vaitélati that could not entirely intáiarli be suppressed saprést. He worked wárkt and toiled tóild for his art árt and for bare bér sustenance sástanans alternately óltarnatli. His life, like that of many others ádharz in the paths pédhz of literature lítarachar and science sáians, was a continued kantínyud battle bétal with adversity edvársiti. Such persons pársanz are forced fórst to satisfy sétasfai daily déili wants wánts by slaving at work which brings bríngz them but little credit krédat in after time, and becomes bikámz a standard sténdard by which they are too often ófan erroneously eróuniasli judged jájd.

Vincenzo vinsénzou Panormo was the slave sléiv of many, manufacturing menyafékcharing Double dábal Basses bésiz and other instruments ínstramants from the material matírial selected saléktad and purchased párchast by his temporary témpareri employer emplóiar, ofttimes compelled kampéld to carry kéri out some crotchet of the patron péitran much against his own wishes wíshiz. The wood wúd thus dhás forced fórst upon apán him was often ófan of the worst wárst description diskrípshan; and, in addition adíshan, he was frequently fríkwantli obliged abláijd to complete kamplít his work within a given time. Instruments ínstramants manufactured menyafékchard under such conditions kandíshanz can scarcely skérsli, it may be supposed sapóuzd, add éd to their maker's méikar reputation repyatéishan. We cannot kénat but regret ragrét that he should have been obliged abláijd to waste wéist himself himsélf on such poor púr materials matírialz. Fortunately fórchanatli, however, in some cases kéisaz he found time to exercise éksarsaiz his skilful powers páuarz to their full fúl extent ikstént, and has thus dhás bequeathed bakwítht to us some of the finest fáinast specimens spésamanz of the copyist's art árt.

His workmanship wárkmanship is of a lighter láitar description diskrípshan than that of Lupot, and is therefore dhérfor more graceful gréisfal. The sound-hole sáundhóul is admirably édmarabli cut kát, and the scroll skróul also well carved kárvd.

PANSANI, Antonio entóuniou, Rome róum, 1735.

PASTA pásta, Antonio entóuniou, Brescia bréscha, 1700-1730. Good work. Model mádal a little high hái; varnish várnish of soft sáft quality kwálati.

PASTA pásta, Domenico douméinikou, Brescia bréscha, about 1700.

PAZZINI, Gaetano gaitánou, Florence flórans, about 1630, pupil pyúpal of Maggini.

PICINO, Padua pédyua, 1712. High hái model mádal; dark dárk varnish várnish.

PLATNER plétnar, Michel mishél, Rome róum, about 1750. The instruments ínstramants of this maker méikar resemble rizémbal those of Tecchler, both in workmanship wárkmanship and varnish várnish.

Michael máikal Platner plétnar fecit Romae anno énou 17—

POLLUSCA, Antonio entóuniou, Rome róum, about 1751.

POSTIGLIONE, Vincenzo vinsénzou, Naples néipalz, contemporary kantémpareri.

PRESSENDA, Giovanni jiouváni Francesco frenchéskou, Turin tyúrin.

Joannes Franciscus Pressenda q. Raphael rafaiél fecit Taurini Anno énou Domini dámini 1826.

Born bórn in the year 1777. The Violins vaialínz bearing béring the label léibal of Pressenda are excellently éksalantli made, and in many instances ínstansaz the varnish várnish is superior supíriar to that met mét with on any Violins vaialínz dated déitid from Italy ítali in the present prézant century sénchari. Pressenda appears apírz to have interested íntrastad himself himsélf to some extent ikstént in the matter métar of varnish várnish. In a little book búk published páblisht in Italy ítali[13] there is the following fálouing passage pésaj: "A pale péil reflection raflékshan of the old art árt (Violin-making vaialín-méiking) is found in Piedmont pídmant, with Guadagnini." The writer ráitar continues kantínyuz with the following fálouing reference réfarans to Pressenda of Turin tyúrin, who, he remarks rimárks, was in his youth yúth at Cremona, "where he collected kaléktad the traditions tradíshanz of the school skúl as regards rigárdz modelling and the preparation preparéishan of the varnish várnish, which is the chief chíf merit mérat of his Violins vaialínz." It is almost ólmoust needless nídlas to remark rimárk that traditional tradíshanal information infarméishan is frequently fríkwantli unsatisfactory ansatisféktari, but particularly partíkyalarli so in connection kanékshan with Cremonese Violin-making vaialín-méiking and varnishing, near nír the middle mídal of the last century sénchari. In short shórt, the great makers méikarz left no other record rakórd of the steps stéps they took túk both in manufacture menyafékchar and in the preparation preparéishan of their varnish várnish than can be discovered diskávard in their works wárks. The instruments ínstramants of Pressenda present prézant a singular síngyalar contrast kántrest with others ádharz of Italian itélyan make belonging bilónging to this century sénchari, most of which evidence évadans what may be termed tármd the throes thróuz of a dying dáiing manufacture menyafékchar. With Pressenda we appear apír to have a new departure dipárchar, in which there is some show shóu of attention aténshan having héving been paid péid to the work accomplished akámplisht in the best bést workshops wárkshaps of Paris péris. The then condition kandíshan of Violin-making vaialín-méiking in Italy ítali made it necessary nésaseri for any Italian itélyan maker méikar—no matter métar how great his ability abílati—to seek sík information infarméishan elsewhere élswer, if desirous dizáiras of excelling ekséling in his art árt. Pressenda appears apírz to have sought sót to emulate émyaleit and even surpass sarpés many Parisian parízhan makers méikarz by associating asóusieiting his name néim for the most part with good and unsophisticated ansafístikeitid work. The results rizálts of his labours reflect raflékt no little credit krédat on his skill skíl and judgment jájmant. Pressenda may be styled stáild a born bórn maker méikar of Violins vaialínz. From an account akáunt published páblisht by Signor sínyor Rinaldi rináldi, of Turin tyúrin, in 1873, we learn lárn that Pressenda was the son sán of poor púr parents pérants, who lived láivd in Lequio-Berria, a hamlet hémlat in the vicinity vasínati of Alba élba, in Piedmont pídmant. His father fádhar Raffaele rafaiélei was a strolling stróuling fiddler fídalar, and gained géind his precarious prikérias livelihood láivlihud by playing pléiing at village vílaj fairs férz and other rejoicings. On these occasions akéizhanz he was accompanied akámpanid by his son sán Giovanni jiouváni, who followed fáloud the occupation akyapéishan of his father fádhar, playing pléiing the Violin vaialín with some degree digrí of skill skíl. It was at this period píriad that he appears apírz to have manifested ménafestad a desire dizáiar to know something of Violin vaialín manufacture menyafékchar, and frequently fríkwantli asked éskt for information infarméishan from his parent pérant, who, however, was rarely rérli able éibal to satisfy sétasfai his curiosity kyuriásati. Learning lárning that Cremona was in some way associated asóusieitad with good Violins vaialínz, he resolved rizálvd to fiddle fídal his way to that city síti. There he found Storioni, from whom húm he obtained abtéind some rudimentary rudaméntari knowledge nálaj of the manufacture menyafékchar he was so much interested íntrastad in. Later léitar he removed rimúvd to Piedmont pídmant, and established istéblisht himself himsélf in Alba élba in 1814, as a maker méikar of Violins vaialínz. The patronage pétranij he gained géind was, however, insufficient insafíshant to maintain meintéin him, and he combined kambáind the business bíznas of cabinet-making kébanat-méiking with his favourite pursuit parsút. After removing rimúving to Carmagnola, he went in the year 1820 to Turin tyúrin, where his abilities abílatiz were recognised and rewarded riwórdid. He was encouraged enkárijd in his manufacture menyafékchar by Giovanni jiouváni Battista batísta Polledro, the famous féimas Violinist vaialínast, who, in 1824, became bikéim Musical myúzikal Director daréktar of the Royal róial Orchestra órkastra at Turin tyúrin. Pressenda died dáid in the year 1854 at Turin tyúrin. His Violins vaialínz are chiefly chífli of the model mádal of Stradivari. The sound-holes sáund-hóulz are well cut kát. The thicknesses of his best bést instruments ínstramants are well arranged aréinjd, and the wood wúd appears apírz to have been selected saléktad with good judgment jájmant. The scrolls skróulz, whilst wáilst having héving much character kériktar, are somewhat sámwát roughly ráfli cut kát. The Violins vaialínz belonging bilónging to his early árli period píriad are chiefly chífli of the Amatese character kériktar.

[Footnote fútnout 13: "L'Italie economique," 1847.]

RACCERIS,——, Mantua ménchua, about 1670.

RINALDI rináldi, Gioffredo, Turin tyúrin. (Benedetti benadéti, Gioffredo.) Chiefly chífli known nóun as a dealer dílar in Violins vaialínz. He exhibited igzíbatad a few Violins vaialínz by Giovanni jiouváni F. Pressenda at the Vienna viéna Exhibition eksabíshan, 1873, and published páblisht a short shórt notice nóutas of that maker méikar, which he inscribed inskráibd to the Archduke árchduk Rannieri.

RIVOLTA, Giacomo jákamou, Milan malán, about 1822. Excellent éksalant work; scroll skróul well cut kát. One of the best bést Italian itélyan makers méikarz of the nineteenth náintínth century sénchari.

ROCCA ráka, Joseph jóusaf Antonio entóuniou, Piedmont pídmant, 1837-1863. Chiefly chífli followed fáloud the pattern pétarn of Stradivarius stredivérias. Neat nít workmanship wárkmanship, varnish várnish rather rédhar thin thín, well-cut wélkát scroll skróul. He worked wárkt for some time with Pressenda.

RODIANI, Giovita, sometimes samtáimz called kóld Budiani; Brescia bréscha, about 1580-1620. His instruments ínstramants resemble rizémbal those of Maggini. Dragonetti is said to have had a Double dábal Bass bés of this make.

ROTA róuta, Giovanni jiouváni, Cremona. Yellow yélou varnish várnish, plain pléin wood wúd, heavy hévi work, rough ráf purfling.

Joannes Rota róuta fecit Cremonese Anno énou 1808.

ROVETTA, Bergamo bargámou, 1840-70.

ROGERI, Giovanni jiouváni Battista batísta, Cremona and Brescia bréscha.

Io áiou: Bapt. Rogerius Bon bán: Nicolai nikoulái Amati amáti de Cremona Alumnus alámnas Brixiae fecit Anno énou Domini dámini 1705.

The word wárd Bon bán after his name néim refers rafárz to his having héving been a citizen sítazan of Bologna balóuni. Vincenzo vinsénzou Lancetti speaks spíks of its being certain sártan that he called kóld himself himsélf Bononiensis. The instruments ínstramants of this maker méikar are of a different pattern pétarn from those of Francesco frenchéskou Ruggeri rujéri. They are higher háiar modelled, the sound-holes sáund-hóulz less lés elegant élagant, and the scroll skróul heavier héviar. They possess pazés, however, high hái merits mérats, and command kaménd prices práisaz nearly nírli equivalent ikwívalant to those of the instruments ínstramants of Francesco frenchéskou. The labels léibalz of this maker méikar are sometimes samtáimz met mét with printed príntad in red réd ink ínk. The instruments ínstramants he made of large lárj Amati amáti pattern pétarn are highly háili valued vélyud. He appears apírz to have worked wárkt from about the close klóus of the seventeenth sévantínth century sénchari. Count káunt Cozio di Salabue and Lancetti speak spík of G. B. Rogeri having héving worked wárkt down to 1723, and possibly pásabli later léitar, and state stéit that he lived láivd for many years in Brescia bréscha. There are some instruments ínstramants bearing béring original aríjanal Amati amáti labels léibalz of this make, made, doubtless dáutlas, when he was in the shop sháp of Amati amáti.

ROGERI, Pietro piétrou Giacomo jákamou, Brescia bréscha, describes diskráibz himself himsélf on his label léibal as a pupil pyúpal of Niccolo Amati amáti. Lancetti refers rafárz to a Violoncello by Pietro piétrou Rogeri as having héving belonged bilóngd to Count káunt Cozio, and remarks rimárks that he was a "nearly nírli unknown annóun member mémbar of the Rogeri family fémali." The date déit of the instrument ínstramant is given as 1714. He cannot kénat now be looked lúkt upon apán as almost ólmoust unknown annóun, since Signor sínyor Piatti played pléid for many years upon apán a famous féimas Violoncello of his make. The pattern pétarn is a little narrower nérouar than that of G. B. Rogeri. Varnish várnish of beautiful byútafal quality kwálati; sound-hole sáundhóul resembles rizémbalz that of Francesco frenchéskou Ruggeri rujéri.

RUGGERI rujéri, Francesco frenchéskou, Cremona, 1668-1720.

Francesco frenchéskou Ruggeri rujéri detto il íl Per pár Cremona 16—

Surnamed "Il íl Per pár." The family fémali of Ruggeri rujéri long occupied ákyapaid a foremost fórmoust place in the city síti of Cremona as makers méikarz of Violins vaialínz, Tenors ténarz, and Violoncellos. Their position pazíshan must have been but little inferior infíriar to that of the Amati amáti family fémali. Francesco frenchéskou, in his earliest árliast works wárks, gives gívz evidence évadans of exceptional iksépshanal artistic artístik feeling fíling, and the sequel síkwal of his career karír, as evidenced évidanst by his productions pradákshanz, is a genuine jényawan development divélapmant of the first impulses ímpalsiz of his genius jínyas. His work belongs bilóngz to the school skúl of Amati amáti, but though dhóu the list líst of instruments ínstramants which he has bequeathed bakwítht to us be a long one, there is no sign sáin of his ever évar having héving been a mere mír copyist. He evidently évadantli thought for himself himsélf. His sound-hole sáundhóul is a beautiful byútafal piece pís of workmanship wárkmanship, and may be said to come between that of Niccolo Amati amáti and Stradivari, being of the most delicate délakat execution eksakyúshan. The outline áutlain of his work is very graceful gréisfal, and the arching árching admirable édmarabal. The scroll skróul has quite an equal íkwal merit mérat with the body bádi. He was very successful saksésfal in selecting salékting his material matírial, much of which is handsome hénsam. His varnish várnish, thoroughly thárouli Cremonese in character kériktar, and of a most beautiful byútafal hue hyú, may be equalled, but never surpassed sarpést. This maker méikar also knew how to use his varnish várnish. There is no instance ínstans in which it has been laid léid on in clumsy klámzi patches péchaz; the surface sárfas is always true trú and even, and, in consequence kánsakwans, the brilliancy of its appearance apírans is perfect parfékt. Lancetti remarks rimárks, "Francesco frenchéskou Ruggeri rujéri was a pupil pyúpal of Niccolo Amati amáti, and perhaps parhéps a more exact igzékt imitator ímateitar of his instruments ínstramants than G. B. Rogeri, and made several sévral instruments ínstramants, beautifully byútafli finished fínisht, and which are not easily ízali distinguished distíngwisht from those of his master méstar." Count káunt Cozio possessed pazést a fine fáin Violin vaialín by Francesco frenchéskou, dated déitid 1684, and the Marquis markí Castiglioni also possessed pazést one made in the same year. Francesco frenchéskou Ruggeri rujéri died dáid at the house No. 7, Contrada Coltellai, Cremona.

RUGGERI rujéri, Giacinto detto Il íl Per pár, Cremona. Son sán of Francesco frenchéskou Ruggeri rujéri. A Violoncello bearing béring this label léibal is in the possession pazéshan of Mr. G. Foster fástar Cooke kúk:

Giacinto filio di Francesco frenchéskou Ruggeri rujéri detto il íl Per pár 1696.

RUGGERI rujéri, Vincenzo vinsénzou, Cremona, also uses yúsaz the name néim "Il íl Per pár." Worked wárkt from about 1700 to 1730. He appears apírz to have made many Violoncellos.

Vincenzo vinsénzou Ruger rúgar detto il íl Per pár in Cremona 17—

RUGGERI rujéri, Giambattista, Cremona. About 1693. Also called kóld himself himsélf Il íl Per pár. Lancetti suggests sagjésts that this maker méikar was a relative rélativ of Francesco frenchéskou. He made several sévral Violoncellos of large lárj size sáiz and deep díp sides sáidz, the wood wúd of which is often ófan plain pléin. The varnish várnish is of good quality kwálati and dark dárk brown bráun colour. He also made Violins vaialínz and Tenors ténarz, the latter létar being excellent éksalant instruments ínstramants.

SACCHINI, Sebastiano.

Sebastino Sacchni da Pesaro l'anno 1686.

SALO sálou, Gasparo da.

Gasparo da Salo sálou Brescia bréscha.

His real ríl name néim was Gasparo dei Bertolotti bartoulóuti. The researches risárchiz of Cavalliere Livi, keeper kípar of the Brescian Archives árkaivz, have brought brót to light láit much valuable vélyabal information infarméishan as to this famous féimas maker méikar. He was born bórn in the town táun of Salo sálou (Province právans of Brescia bréscha) in or about the year 1542, died dáid there on the 14th of April éipral, 1609, and was buried bérid in the church chárch of San sén Joseffo. A son sán (Francesco frenchéskou) appears apírz to have worked wárkt with him and to have died dáid in 1614. Several sévral Viols of Gasparo's workmanship wárkmanship, of different sizes sáizaz, are still extant ékstant. The Violins vaialínz are very rare rér. A few large lárj Violas vióulaz exist igzíst, the tone tóun of which is magnificent megnífasant. His genuine jényawan labels léibalz bear bér no date déit. Gio Paolo páulou Maggini was apprenticed apréntast to him, and is believed bilívd to have purchased párchast the business bíznas, after Gasparo's death déth, from his son sán Francesco frenchéskou.

To Gasparo da Salo sálou belongs bilóngz the credit krédat of having héving laid léid the foundation faundéishan of the Italian itélyan style stáil of Violin-making vaialín-méiking. In his works wárks may be traced tréist the gradual gréjual development divélapmant of the system upon apán which his followers fálouarz built bílt their reputation repyatéishan, viz., a well-defined wél-difáind model mádal, excellent éksalant materials matírialz, and choice chóis varnish várnish. It is to be regretted rigrétid that his immediate imídiat followers fálouarz, with the exception iksépshan of Paolo páulou Maggini, departed dipártad from the path péth so successfully saksésfali trodden trádan by this great pioneer paianír. But for this deviation diviéishan, the works wárks of the early árli Amati amáti and a few others ádharz would have occupied ákyapaid a higher háiar position pazíshan than that which they now command kaménd. They were men mén possessing pazésing great abilities abílatiz, and might easily ízali have carried kérid out the designs dizáinz of the great Brescian maker méikar. They appear apír, however, to have arrived aráivd at a different conclusion kanklúzhan, as regards rigárdz the form fórm of their instrument ínstramant, from that shaped shéipt by Gasparo da Salo sálou. Their works wárks show shóu an evident évadant preference préfarans for the high hái model mádal, and thus dhás undid andíd much that Gasparo had accomplished akámplisht. It is clear klír that Gasparo only arrived aráivd at his conclusions kanklúzhanz after painstaking péinsteiking labour léibaur, for he commenced kaménst with the high hái form fórm, and gradually gréjuali, as experience ikspírians taught tót, lowered lóuard it. It is, further fárdhar, remarkable rimárkabal that the latter létar members mémbarz of the Amati amáti family fémali pursued parsúd the same course kórs as Andrea éndria Amati amáti (though dhóu in a less lés degree digrí), after which they awoke awóuk, as it were, to the reasonableness rízanabalnas of the example igzémpal set by Gasparo, and gave géiv us those instruments ínstramants so highly háili thought of by the connoisseur kanasár, the form fórm of which has much in common káman with that adopted adáptad by Niccolo Amati amáti and perfected parféktad by Antonio entóuniou Stradivari.

It has been before remarked rimárkt that Gasparo da Salo sálou did not arrive aráiv at his conclusions kanklúzhanz without mature machúr consideration kansidaréishan. In fact fékt, a long and deliberate dilíbarat process práses of experiment ikspéramant may be traced tréist in his instruments ínstramants. We find that at times táimz his Violins vaialínz and Violas vióulaz were treated trítad differently dífrantli from the Accordos and Violonos. The Violins vaialínz are found to be high hái in model mádal, while the above-named abávnéimd instruments ínstramants, evidently évadantli of the same date déit, are flat flét. He would seem sím to have been desirous dizáiras of testing tésting the powers páuarz of either ídhar model mádal, and it is possible pásabal that he fostered fástard the idea aidía of varying vériing the construction kanstrákshan of each of the four species spíshiz in the family fémali of stringed stríngd instruments ínstramants according akórding to the part which should be allotted alátid to it. To treat trít each part of the stringed stríngd quartette in a different way is certainly sártanli an error érar, for they are to be looked lúkt upon apán as gradations greidéishanz of one and the same instrument ínstramant; nevertheless nevardhalés, the attempt atémpt of Gasparo, although mistaken mistéikan, offers ófarz but another instance ínstans of his prolific proulífik ingenuity injanúati and unwearied diligence dílajans. An praise préiz is due to the great Brescian maker méikar for having héving opened óupand up, as a pioneer paianír, so wide wáid a field fíld of research risárch. The Cremonese artists ártists followed fáloud up his clue klú, and brought brót the Violin vaialín to the highest háiast state stéit of excellence éksalans.

The chief chíf characteristics keraktarístiks of the works wárks of Gasparo da Salo sálou are the sound-holes sáund-hóulz, shortened shórtand centre-bouts séntar-báuts, scroll skróul, and peculiar pakyúlyar choice chóis of material matírial. The length lénkth of the sound-hole sáundhóul at first strikes stráiks one as somewhat sámwát crude krúd, but as the eye ái becomes bikámz more acquainted akwéintid with the general jénaral form fórm of the instrument ínstramant, it is seen sín to be in perfect parfékt harmony hármani with the primitive prímativ outline áutlain. With this sound-hole sáundhóul commences kaménsaz the pointed póintad form fórm to which Giuseppe jisépi Guarneri garnéri, nearly nírli a century sénchari and a half héf later léitar, gave géiv such perfection parfékshan. The material matírial used for the larger lárjar instruments ínstramants is mostly móustli pear-wood pérwúd, or wood wúd of that description diskrípshan, the quality kwálati of which is particularly partíkyalarli fine fáin. In the selection salékshan of this wood wúd he showed shóud a still minuter discrimination diskrimanéishan, using yúzing it generally jénarali for Accordos and Violonos, and not for Violins vaialínz or Violas vióulaz; few specimens spésamanz of the latter létar have backs béks of pear-wood pérwúd. His work was bold bóuld, but not highly háili finished fínisht; no other result rizált could be looked lúkt for at so early árli a date déit. The grain gréin of the bellies béliz is usually yúzhawali very even and well defined difáind. Signor sínyor Dragonetti, the late léit eminent émanant Double-Bass dábalbés player pléiar, possessed pazést three or four Double-Basses dábal-bésiz by this maker méikar of various vérias sizes sáizaz. The most celebrated sélabreitad of these instruments ínstramants was presented prizéntad to him by the monks mánks of the monastery mánasteri of St strít. Mark's márk, Venice vénas, about the year 1776, and was returned ritárnd to the Canons kénanz of that Church chárch (the monks mánks and the monastery mánasteri having héving been suppressed saprést since the French frénch occupation akyapéishan of Venice vénas in 1805 or 1809) after Dragonetti's death déth, in 1846. Another was bequeathed bakwítht by Dragonetti to the late léit Duke dúk of Leinster. A third thárd is in the possession pazéshan of the Rev rév. George jórj Leigh Blake bléik. Among amáng his chamber chéimbar Double-Basses dábal-bésiz the one formerly fórmarli belonging bilónging to Mr. Bennett bénat is regarded ragárdad as a singularly síngyalarli perfect parfékt example igzémpal. It was numbered námbard with the rarities réritiz of Luigi luíji Tarisio's collection kalékshan, and highly háili valued vélyud by him as a specimen spésaman of the maker méikar. Among amáng his Violins vaialínz, the instrument ínstramant formerly fórmarli owned óund by Lord lórd Amherst émarst, of Hackney hékni, is unique yuník; the infancy ínfansi of the Violin vaialín at this period píriad is better bétar seen sín here than any specimen spésaman with which I am ém acquainted akwéintid. The Violin vaialín of this make which belonged bilóngd to Ole óul Bull búl, and with which I am ém familiar famílyar, is another well-known wélnóun example igzémpal. This instrument ínstramant is characteristic keraktarístik of its author óthar. Its varnish várnish is soft-looking sáft-lúking and rich rích, though dhóu paler than usual yúzhawal. The finger-board fíngar-bórd is inlaid ínleid, and is made of a light láit description diskrípshan of wood wúd. The head héd is carved kárvd and painted péintad, and is a very choice chóis piece pís of Italian itélyan work.

SANONI, Giovanni jiouváni Battista batísta, Verona varóuna. About 1740. His instruments ínstramants are seldom séldam met mét with in England íngland. High hái model mádal.

SANTO séntou, Giovanni jiouváni, Naples néipalz, 1700-30. Copied kápid Amati amáti. Varnish várnish very hard hárd, and workmanship wárkmanship indifferent indífrant.

SANZO sénzou, Milan malán. Middle mídal and early árli eighteenth eitínth century sénchari. Similar símalar to Grancino.

SARDI, ——, Venice vénas, 1649. A broken bróukan Violin vaialín bearing béring this name néim was at the Milan malán Exhibition eksabíshan, 1881.

SEIGHER, Girolamo jiroulámou. Worked wárkt in the shop sháp of Niccolo Amati amáti from 1680 to 1682.

SELLAS, Matteo matéiou, Lute-maker lútméikar. M. Chouquet, in his "Catalogue kétalog Raisonne" of the instruments ínstramants at the Paris péris Conservatoire, mentions ménshanz two Arch-Lutes árchlúts made by this maker méikar.

SERAFINO sarafínou, Santo séntou, Udine—Venice vénas, 1710-48.

Sanctus Seraphin utinensis Fecit Venetijs Ann én. 17—

This maker méikar is chiefly chífli famed féimd for the exquisite ékskwazat finish fínish of his workmanship wárkmanship. The modelling of his instruments ínstramants varied vérid. There are instances ínstansaz, particularly partíkyalarli in the case of his Violins vaialínz, where he has entirely intáiarli set aside asáid the Stainer form fórm, and copied kápid Amati amáti. These Violins vaialínz are wonderfully wándarfali like the work of Francesco frenchéskou Ruggeri rujéri. The varnish várnish upon apán them, of a rich rích red réd colour, is of so exceptional iksépshanal a quality kwálati, that one is compelled kampéld to look twice twáis before being satisfied sétasfaid as to the author óthar. The greater gréitar number, however, of his instruments ínstramants are of the German járman character kériktar, the sound-hole sáundhóul, scroll skróul, and outline áutlain all hinting hínting of Stainer. These Venetians were wonderfully wándarfali fortunate fórchanat in obtaining abtéining handsome hénsam wood wúd, and in this respect rispékt Santo séntou Serafino sarafínou was pre-eminent prí-émanant, for his sides sáidz and backs béks are simply símpli beautiful byútafal to perfection parfékshan. His method méthad of cutting káting the wood wúd was invariably invériabli to show shóu the grain gréin in even stripes stráips. The scroll skróul is well cut kát in point of workmanship wárkmanship, but the style stáil is poor púr. Santo séntou Serafino sarafínou cannot kénat be regarded ragárdad as having héving displayed displéid originality arijanéliti in any shape shéip, and he thus dhás forms fórmz an exception iksépshan to the great majority majórati of Italian itélyan makers méikarz. His instruments ínstramants are either ídhar copies kápiz of Amati amáti or of Stainer; there is, of course kórs, a strong stróng Italian itélyan flavour about his Stainer copies kápiz, which lifts lífts them above abáv the German járman school skúl of imitators ímiteitarz, and hence héns their higher háiar value vélyu. Nearly nírli all his instruments ínstramants were branded bréndid with his name néim above abáv the tail-pin téilpín. He used an ornamental ornaméntal label léibal of large lárj size sáiz. The Violoncello in the possession pazéshan of Mr. M. J. Astle ésal is a charming chárming specimen spésaman of Serafino's sarafínou work, I may say unequalled.

SNEIDER snáidar, Josefo, Pavia péivia. Lancetti remarks rimárks that many of the Violins vaialínz by Girolamo jiroulámou Amati amáti, son sán of Niccolo, were attributed atríbyatad to this maker méikar.

Joseph jóusaf Sneider snáidar Papiae Alumnus alámnas Nicolai nikoulái Amati amáti Cremonae fecit Anno énou 17—

SOCCHI, Vincenzo vinsénzou, 1661, Bologna balóuni. In the Catalogue kétalog of M. Chouquet mention ménshan is made of a Kit kít or Pochette by this maker méikar in the Paris péris Conservatoire.

SORSANA, Giuseppe jisépi, 1700-1750. Said to have been a pupil pyúpal of Stradivari. Highly háili finished fínisht work, varnish várnish of beautiful byútafal quality kwálati.

Joseph jóusaf Sorsana fecit Cremone sub sáb discip. Ant ént. Stradivarii 1737.

STATLEE, Anderl, Genoa jénoua, about 1714. Signed sáind himself himsélf as a pupil pyúpal of Hieronymus Amati amáti (son sán of Niccolo). Not unlike anláik the work of Urquhart árkart.

STREGNER, Magno mégnou, Venice vénas, Lute-maker lútméikar.

STORIONI, Lorenzo larénzou, Cremona, about 1769 to 1799.

Laurentius Storioni Fecit Cremonae 17—

The last of the old makers méikarz who evinced ivínst any marked márkt degree digrí of originality arijanéliti. Although there is an almost ólmoust total tóutal absence ébsans of refinement rafáinmant in his works wárks, there is much that is clever klévar, which has gradually gréjuali caused kázd these instruments ínstramants to be valued vélyud very highly háili. He appears apírz to have made Giuseppe jisépi Guarneri garnéri del dél Gesu his idol áidal. Although his instruments ínstramants cannot kénat be considered kansídard as copies kápiz, yet yét there is evidence évadans of his having héving made use of the salient séiliant points póints belonging bilónging to Guarneri garnéri, which he fitted fítad, as it were, to his own model mádal. He had much of the disregard disrigárd of mere mír appearance apírans which Guarneri garnéri so often ófan displayed displéid, and seems símz to have been guided gáidad by similar símalar fancies fénsiz. His freak frík was to place his sound-holes sáund-hóulz in all sorts sórts of ways wéiz, scarcely skérsli twice twáis alike aláik. His outline áutlain is always vigorous vígaras, but without thought of symmetrical samétrikal appearance apírans. There is not an instrument ínstramant of his make that could have been made upon apán a mould móuld—they were built bílt from the blocks bláks, and the result rizált, as may be expected ikspéktad, is not graceful gréisfal. M. Vieuxtemps, some years ago agóu, possessed pazést himself himsélf of a Storioni Violin vaialín, now belonging bilónging to Mr. Proctor práktar, and, having héving carefully kérfali regulated régyaleitad it, succeeded saksídad in bringing brínging forth fórth its great powers páuarz. His hearers hírarz were so delighted diláitad that attention aténshan was speedily spídali directed daréktad to this neglected nagléktad maker méikar. These instruments ínstramants are highly háili thought of in Italy ítali. The varnish várnish is not of the Cremonese description diskrípshan, but partakes of the Neapolitan niapálatan character kériktar. The purfling is unusually anyúzhuali narrow nérou, and roughly ráfli worked wárkt; the scroll skróul is stiff stíf, and the absence ébsans of finish fínish is observable abzárvabal. The material matírial he used was generally jénarali good in point of acoustical akústikal properties prápartiz, though dhóu not handsome hénsam. Storioni does not appear apír to have made many Tenors ténarz or Violoncellos—the latter létar are rarely rérli met mét with.

Storioni died dáid in 1799. He lived láivd at the house No. 3, Contrada Coltellai, which was afterwards éftarwardz occupied ákyapaid by G. B. Ceruti.

STRADIVARI, Antonio entóuniou, Cremona.

"The instrument ínstramant on which he played pléid Was in Cremona's workshops wárkshaps made, By a great master méstar of the past pést, Ere ér yet yét was lost lóst the art árt divine diváin; Fashioned féshand of maple méipal and of pine páin, That in Tyrolian forests fórasts vast vést Had rocked rákt and wrestled résald with the blast blést; Exquisite ékskwazat was it in design dizáin, A marvel márval of the lutist's art árt, Perfect parfékt in each minutest part; And in its hollow hálou chamber chéimbar, thus dhás, The maker méikar from whose húz hands héndz it came Had written rítan his unrivalled name néim— 'Antonius entóunias Stradivarius stredivérias.'"—LONGFELLOW lóngfelou.

Antonius entóunias Stradiuarius Cremonensis Faciebat Anno énou 17—

The renown rináun of this remarkable rimárkabal maker méikar of Violins vaialínz is beyond biánd that of all others ádharz; his praise préiz has been sung sáng alike aláik by poet póuat, artist ártast, and musician myuzíshan. His magic méjik name néim is ever évar rising ráizing to the lips líps in the presence prézans of the "king kíng of instruments ínstramants"; its sound sáund is as familiar famílyar to the humble hámbal player pléiar as to the finished fínisht artist ártast. He has received rasívd the undisputed andispyútid homage ámaj of two centuries sénchariz, and time seems símz but to add éd to the number and devotion divóushan of his liege líj subjects sábjikts: to-day túdéi he is as little likely láikli to be dethroned dithróund as Shakespeare shéikspir.

Although many interesting íntrasting particulars partíkyalarz concerning kansárning Antonio entóuniou Stradivari have been obtained abtéind from time to time, there is wanting wánting that which alone alóun can fully fúli satisfy sétasfai his admirers admáirarz, viz., connected kanéktad records rakórdz of the chief chíf events ivénts of his life. Every endeavour indévar has been made to supply saplái, in some way, this deficiency difíshansi, by consulting kansálting documents dákyamants relating riléiting to the city síti of Cremona during the 17th and 18th centuries sénchariz. The results rizálts of these inquiries inkwáiariz are of much value vélyu, and the reader rídar will be made acquainted akwéintid with them in the following fálouing pages péijaz.

With a patience péishans worthy wárdhi of reward riwórd, the late léit librarian laibrérian at Cremona, Professor prafésar Peter pítar Fecit, searched sárcht for the will of Stradivari, but as no proper prápar register réjistar appears apírz to have been kept képt until long after the famous féimas maker méikar died dáid, his efforts éfarts were unsuccessful ansaksésfal. Although the contents kántents of the will might throw thróu but a faint féint light láit upon apán the doings dúingz of the testator, there might be found particulars partíkyalarz that would link línk together tagédhar much of the information infarméishan we already olrédi possess pazés.

The date déit of birth bárth of Antonio entóuniou Stradivari was made known nóun to M. Fetis in 1856,[14] upon apán evidence évadans contained kantéind in an inventory invantóri of instruments ínstramants which belonged bilóngd to Count káunt Cozio di Salabue. The inventory invantóri was made upon apán the occasion akéizhan of the instruments ínstramants being deposited dapázitid with Carlo kárlou Carli kárli, a Milanese banker bénkar. Among amáng the Violins vaialínz there appears apírz to have been one by Antonio entóuniou Stradivari, bearing béring a label léibal upon apán which, in the handwriting héndraiting of its maker méikar, was stated stéitad his age éij, namely néimli, ninety-two náintitú years, and the date déit 1736; thus dhás making méiking the year of birth bárth 1644.

"That plain pléin white-aproned man who stood stúd at work, Patient péishant and accurate ékyarat, full fúl fourscore years, Cherished chérisht his sight sáit and touch tách by temperance témparans; And, since keen kín sense séns is love láv of perfectness, Made perfect parfékt Violins vaialínz, the needed nídad paths pédhz For inspiration insparéishan and high hái mastery méstari." Stradivari, by GEORGE jórj ELIOT éliat.

[Footnote fútnout 14: "Antoine antwán Stradivari, luthier celebre sélabra," par pár F. I. Fetis. Paris péris, 1856.]

Previous prívias to the publication pablikéishan of this evidence évadans by M. Fetis, the date déit of birth bárth was given as 1664, and it has been stated stéitad as 1644 or 1650. Don dán Paolo páulou Lombardini, in his pamphlet pémflat on Stradivari published páblisht at Cremona in 1872, gives gívz an interesting íntrasting genealogical account akáunt of the great Cremonese maker méikar and his family fémali. The author óthar follows fálouz the date déit of birth bárth as stated stéitad by M. Fetis. This is succeeded saksídad by information infarméishan of his own discovery diskávari, namely néimli, the date déit of the marriage mérij of Stradivari, July julái 4, 1667.

He appears apírz to have married mérid a widow wídou named néimd Capra képra, whose húz maiden méidan name néim was Ferraboschi, her age éij being twenty-seven twénti-sévan, and that of Stradivari twenty-three twénti-thrí, according akórding to the date déit given by Lombardini.

GENEALOGICAL TABLE téibal OF THE FAMILY fémali OF STRADIVARI, EXTRACTED ekstréktid FROM THE PAMPHLET pémflat OF PAOLO páulou LOMBARDINI.

STRADIVARI, ALESSANDRO aleizándrou = MORONI maróuni, ANNA éna STRADIVARI, GIUSEPPE jisépi J., born bórn March márch 20, 1623. STRADIVARI, ANTONIO entóuniou, born bórn 1644; died dáid Dec dék. 18, 1737. = Married mérid, July julái 4, 1667 = FERRABOSCHI, FRANCESCA frenchéska, born bórn Oct ókt. 7, 1640; died dáid May 25, 1698. (1) GIULIO júliou, born bórn Dec dék. 23, 1667; married mérid, 1688; died dáid Aug ógast. 7, 1707. (2) FRANCESCO frenchéskou, born bórn Feb fébyaweri. 6, 1670; died dáid Feb fébyaweri. 12, 1670. (3) FRANCESCO frenchéskou, born bórn Feb fébyaweri. 1, 1671; died dáid May 11, 1743. (4) CATTERINA, born bórn Feb fébyaweri. 18, 1674; died dáid Aug ógast. 3, 1748. (5) ALESSANDRO aleizándrou, born bórn May 25, 1677; died dáid Jan jén. 26, 1732. (6) OMOBONO, born bórn Nov nóuv. 14, 1679; died dáid June jún 9, 1742. = Married mérid, second time, Aug ógast. 24, 1699. = ZAMBELLI zambéli, ANTONIA entóunia, born bórn June jún 11, 1664 died dáid March márch 3, 1737. (7) FRANCESCA frenchéska, born bórn Sept sépt. 19, 1700; died dáid Feb fébyaweri. 11, 1720. (8) G. B. GIUSEPPE jisépi, born bórn Nov nóuv. 6, 1701; died dáid June jún 7, 1702. (9) G. B. MARTINO martínou, born bórn Nov nóuv. 11, 1703; died dáid Nov nóuv. 1, 1727. (10) GIUSEPPE jisépi, born bórn Oct ókt. 27, 1704; (Priest príst) died dáid Nov nóuv. 29, 1781. (11) PAOLO páulou, born bórn Jan jén. 26, 1708; (Cloth klóth Merchant márchant) died dáid Oct ókt. 19, 1776. = TEMPLARI, ELENA élana, born bórn 1705; died dáid 1776. ANTONIO entóuniou II., born bórn 1738; died dáid 1789. = DALLA déla NOCE nóus, MARGARITA margaríta, born bórn 1739; died dáid 1787. GIUSEPPE jisépi, born bórn 1763. LUIGIA, born bórn 1765. FRANCESCA frenchéska, born bórn 1767. GIACOMO jákamou, born bórn 1769; died dáid 1828. = Married mérid, 1797. = CORNIERI, GIUSEPPA, died dáid Jan jén. 25, 1803. CESARE cheizárei, born bórn 1798 (Physician fazíshan). = Married mérid, 1838. = MAINI, LAVINIA lavínya, born bórn 1808; died dáid 1862. LIBERO, born bórn Jan jén. 29, 1840 (Barrister béristar). = Married mérid, 1867. = PODESTA poudésta, GIOVANNA, born bórn 184-. CLELIA, born bórn 1868. ANNITA, born bórn 1871. ITALO, born bórn 187-. PIETRO piétrou, born bórn 1800; died dáid 1869. GIUSEPPE jisépi, born bórn 1802. = Married mérid, 1836. = CRISTINI, MARIA maría, born bórn 1807. FANNY féni. EUFEMIA. ENRICO enríkou. = Married mérid, second time, 1821. = BONAZZI, ROSALINDA rousalínda, born bórn 1792. GIACOMA 2nd, born bórn 1822; (of Milan malán). = Married mérid, 1861. = ROSSI rósi, FANNY féni, born bórn 1835. ELENA élana. SILVIA sílvia. PIERINA. FAUSTO fóstou. ANTONIA entóunia, born bórn 1771; died dáid 1816. FRANCESCA frenchéska, born bórn 1739; died dáid 1809 (Nun nán). CARLO kárlou, born bórn Dec dék. 4, 1741; died dáid 1808. FRANCESCO frenchéskou, born bórn 1744; died dáid 1746. PAOLO páulou, born bórn 1746; died dáid 1792.

It is interesting íntrasting to find evidence évadans of some importance impórtans relative rélativ to the question kwéschan of the age éij of Stradivari from the pen pén of Lancetti. He says séz, "Antonio entóuniou having héving worked wárkt to the age éij of ninety-three náinti-thrí years, died dáid in Cremona in the year 1738, at the age éij of ninety-four náintifór years." Though dhóu this is obviously ábviasli incorrect inkarékt (the register réjistar showing shóuing that he died dáid in 1737), the extract ékstrekt serves sárvz to support sapórt the date déit of birth bárth, resting résting upon apán the evidence évadans of the inventory invantóri, inasmuch inésmak as it satisfactorily setisféktrali shows shóuz the age éij Stradivari was considered kansídard to be by his own family fémali, since Count káunt Cozio communicated kamyúnakeitid the information infarméishan to Lancetti from correspondence koraspándans with Paolo páulou Stradivari, son sán of Antonio entóuniou. In passing pésing, it may be observed abzárvd that Stradivari died dáid December disémbar 18, 1737, and therefore dhérfor the year mentioned ménshand by his son sán Paolo páulou was only incorrect inkarékt by thirteen thártín days déiz. He was equally íkwali as near nír the truth trúth in saying séiing his father fádhar was ninety-four náintifór when he should have said he was in his ninety-fourth náinti-fórth year.

Having héving referred rafárd to the manuscript ményaskript inventory invantóri, upon apán which rests résts the date déit of birth bárth as given by Fetis—which document dákyament, taken téikan by itself itsélf, it must be said is unsatisfactory ansatisféktari—and having héving noticed nóutast the age éij of Stradivari as represented reprazéntad by his son sán, I will turn tárn to other evidence évadans in support sapórt of the inventory invantóri. The late léit Mr. Muntz mánts, of Birmingham bárminghem, possessed pazést a Violin vaialín by Stradivari, dated déitid 1736, and, in writing ráiting, the age éij of the maker méikar is given as ninety-two náintitú. Another Violin vaialín by Stradivari, made in the same year, and similarly símalarli labelled léibald, was bequeathed bakwítht by the late léit Mrs mísiz. Lewis lúis Hill híl to the Royal róial Academy akédami of Music myúzik. This Violin vaialín has been regarded ragárdad as one of the instruments ínstramants found in the maker's méikar shop sháp when he died dáid. It originally aríjanali belonged bilóngd to Habeneck, the well-known wélnóun professor prafésar, and was taken téikan to Paris péris between the years 1824 and 1830. Luigi luíji Tarisio became bikéim possessed pazést of some of the instruments ínstramants mentioned ménshand in the inventory invantóri found among amáng the papers péiparz of Carlo kárlou Carli kárli, the banker bénkar, and one of these Violins vaialínz in all probability prababílati furnished fárnisht the evidence évadans of the date déit of birth bárth referred rafárd to by M. Fetis, and both instruments ínstramants were probably prábabli purchased párchast by Tarisio, together tagédhar with the Violin vaialín dated déitid 1716, named néimd by Vuillaume "le la Messie."[15] The last instrument ínstramant necessary nésaseri to notice nóutas in confirmation kanfarméishan of the date déit, hitherto hídhartú resting résting alone alóun on the inventory invantóri, was in the possession pazéshan of the late léit M. H. de St strít. Sennoch, of Paris péris. It is dated déitid 1737, and in the handwriting héndraiting of Stradivari is his age éij, ninety-three náinti-thrí years, which decides disáidz the correctness karéktnas of the statement stéitmant made by Lancetti (upon apán the authority athórati of Count káunt Cozio di Salabue, who received rasívd the information infarméishan from Paolo páulou Stradivari in 1775) that "Antonio entóuniou worked wárkt up to the age éij of ninety-three náinti-thrí years."

[Footnote fútnout 15: The information infarméishan which M. Fetis gives gívz of this Violin vaialín was based béist on the inventory invantóri of Carlo kárlou Carli kárli. It is also mentioned ménshand in the correspondence koraspándans between Count káunt Cozio and Lancetti.]

In the absence ébsans of direct darékt information infarméishan concerning kansárning the life of Stradivari, we must turn tárn to his instruments ínstramants for such evidence évadans as we require rikwáiar; and these, happily hépali, give us a greater gréitar insight ínsait into his career karír than would be readily rédali imagined iméjand. I am ém not aware awér that any Violin vaialín of Stradivari is known nóun in which it is stated stéitad that he was a pupil pyúpal of Niccolo Amati amáti, or that the assumption asámpshan has been maintained meintéind on any other grounds gráundz than the indisputable indispyútabal evidence évadans furnished fárnisht by the early árli instruments ínstramants of this great maker méikar.[16] Never has affinity afínati in the art árt of Violin vaialín manufacture menyafékchar been more marked márkt than that between Stradivari and Niccolo Amati amáti during the early árli life of the former fórmar. I have, in another place, remarked rimárkt upon apán the almost ólmoust invariable invériabal similarity simalérati occurring akáring between the works wárks of master méstar and pupil pyúpal, and have used this canon kénan in refutation refyutéishan of the doctrine dáktran that Giuseppe jisépi Guarneri garnéri del dél Gesu was ever évar a pupil pyúpal of Antonio entóuniou Stradivari. Lancetti states stéits that the instruments ínstramants of Stradivari made in 1665, and others ádharz in 1666, bear bér the label léibal of Niccolo Amati amáti, and instances ínstansaz one that was in the collection kalékshan of Count káunt Cozio, to which Stradivari made a new belly béli, many years later léitar, in his best bést style stáil. It is certain sártan that instruments ínstramants as described diskráibd by Lancetti have been recognised by intelligent intélajant connoisseurs kanasárz as wholly hóuli the work of Stradivari (in which case, as may be imagined iméjand, they have no longer lóngar been allowed aláud to sail séil under false fóls colours, but have had their proper prápar certificate sartífikat of birth bárth attached atécht to them). In other instances ínstansaz the beautiful byútafal scroll skróul of Stradivari has been recognised on the body bádi of an Amati amáti, or the sound-hole sáundhóul has shown shóun that it was cut kát by the hand hénd of Stradivari.

[Footnote fútnout 16: Upon apán reference réfarans to Lancetti's MSS., I find that he states stéits Stradivari used a label léibal with the words wárdz "Nicolai nikoulái Amati amáti Alumnus alámnas," about 1666.]

Having héving met mét with a Violin vaialín by Stradivari (since the publication pablikéishan of the first edition adíshan of this work) dated déitid 1666, it would appear apír that he left the workshop wárkshap of his master méstar at that time, or not later léitar than the year of his marriage mérij in 1667. The extracts ékstrekts obtained abtéind by Canon kénan Bazzi from the parish pérish registers réjastarz, relative rélativ to the pupils pyúpalz of Niccolo Amati amáti, help hélp to establish istéblish the correctness karéktnas of this view vyú. Stradivari must have been in the workshop wárkshap of his master méstar between the years 1658 and 1666. We have no information infarméishan of the pupils pyúpalz of Amati amáti from 1654 to 1665. In 1666 the name néim of Giorgio jórjiou Fraiser fréizhar is given; consequently kánsakwantli Stradivari must have left previous prívias to 1666 or early árli in that year, and prior práiar to the registration rejistréishan. Between the years 1666 and 1672 there is observable abzárvabal a marked márkt change chéinj in style stáil, and the workmanship wárkmanship is better bétar. The instruments ínstramants he made about this period píriad have wood wúd for the most part singularly síngyalarli plain pléin, and different in kind káind from what his master méstar used. His use of this material matírial I am ém disposed dispóuzd to attribute étrabyut to the want of means mínz rather rédhar than choice chóis. The purfling of these early árli instruments ínstramants is very narrow nérou, and many of the backs béks are cut kát slab-form slébfórm. Previous prívias to about the year 1672, we find that his whole hóul work is in accordance akórdans with the plans plénz of Amati amáti (not as seen sín in the latter's létar grand grénd pattern pétarn, but in his ordinary órdaneri full-sized fúlsáizd instrument ínstramant); the arching árching is identical aidéntikal, the corners kórnarz are treated trítad similarly símalarli, the sound-hole sáundhóul is quite Amati-like amátiláik in form fórm, yet yét easily ízali distinguished distíngwisht by its extreme ekstrím delicacy délakasi, the scroll skróul a thorough thárou imitation imatéishan of Amati amáti, and presenting prizénting a singular síngyalar contrast kántrest to the vigorous vígaras individuality indivijuéliti which Stradivari displayed displéid in this portion pórshan of his work a few years later léitar. Enough ináf has been said to enable enéibal the reader rídar to recognise the connection kanékshan which must have existed igzístad between Amati amáti and Stradivari, to admit admít of such marked márkt resemblances rizémblansaz. Taking téiking the instruments ínstramants of Stradivari as beacons bíkanz throwing thróuing light láit upon apán many curious kyúrias and interesting íntrasting points póints of the maker's méikar manufacture menyafékchar, the number and character kériktar of his Violins vaialínz and Violoncellos made during the decade dekéid following fálouing 1674 is indicative indíkativ of his having héving increased inkríst both his reputation repyatéishan and his patronage pétranij. The last year of this period píriad, namely néimli 1684, was that in which his master méstar, Niccolo Amati amáti, died dáid, at the age éij of eighty-eight éitiéit. We have already olrédi seen sín, in the notice nóutas of Amati amáti, that Niccolo was the last member mémbar of the family fémali who maintained meintéind unbroken anbróukan the long chain chéin of associations asousiéishanz connected kanéktad with the house of Amati amáti, extending iksténding over a period píriad of a century sénchari and a half héf. The circumstance sárkamstens of all the tools túlz, patterns pétarnz, and models mádalz of Niccolo Amati amáti having héving passed pést into the possession pazéshan of his pupil pyúpal Stradivari, and not into that of his son sán Girolamo jiroulámou (who was then thirty-five thárdi-fáiv years of age éij), clearly klírli shows shóuz that the son sán did not succeed saksíd to his father's fádhar business bíznas. We are thus dhás led léd to believe bilív that during the ten tén years above abáv referred rafárd to, Niccolo Amati amáti had been gradually gréjuali lessening lésaning his activity ektívati, and that the patronage pétranij so long enjoyed enjóid by the Amati amáti family fémali fell fél for the most part to his gifted gíftad pupil pyúpal, Antonio entóuniou Stradivari. Among amáng the interesting íntrasting items áitamz of information infarméishan supplied sapláid by the efforts éfarts of Paolo páulou Lombardini, relative rélativ to Stradivari, is that of the purchase párchas of the house, in 1680, of the Brothers brádharz Picenardi for seven sévan thousand tháuzand imperial impírial lire líra, equivalent ikwívalant to above abáv 800 pounds páundz in present prézant English ínglish money máni. This purchase párchas, made about fourteen fórtín years after Stradivari began bigén to manufacture menyafékchar on his own account akáunt, well marks márks the progress prágres he made. I have, however, further fárdhar proof prúf of his fame féim and prosperity praspérati at this period píriad in the valuable vélyabal extracts ékstrekts from the manuscript ményaskript of Desiderio disidériou Arisi, at Cremona.

The knowledge nálaj Arisi had of Stradivari is shown shóun by the following fálouing remarks rimárks written rítan by him in the year 1720. He says séz, "In Cremona is also living líving my intimate íntamat friend frénd Antonio entóuniou Stradivari, an excellent éksalant maker méikar of all kinds káindz of musical myúzikal instruments ínstramants.[17] It will not be out of place to make special spéshal mention ménshan of his merits mérats. His fame féim is unequalled as a maker méikar of instruments ínstramants of the finest fáinast qualities kwálatiz, and he has made many of extraordinary ekstraórdaneri beauty byúti, which are richly ríchli ornamented órnamentid with small figures fígyarz, flowers fláuarz, fruits frúts, arabesques, and graceful gréisfal interlaying of fanciful fénsifal ornaments órnamants, all in perfect parfékt drawing dróing, which he sometimes samtáimz paints péints in black blék or inlays with ebony ébani and ivory áivari, all of which is executed éksakyutad with the greatest gréitast skill skíl, rendering réndaring them worthy wárdhi of the exalted igzóltid personages to whom húm they are intended inténdad to be presented prizéntad. I have thought proper prápar, therefore dhérfor, to mention ménshan some works wárks of this great master méstar, in testimony téstamouni of the high hái esteem astím and universal yunavársal admiration edmaréishan which he enjoys enjóiz." These prefatory remarks rimárks of Arisi are followed fáloud by several sévral important impórtant statements stéitmants, which I have arranged aréinjd in accordance akórdans with the different periods píriadz it will be necessary nésaseri to refer rafár to in the course kórs of this notice nóutas.

[Footnote fútnout 17: Mention ménshan is made by Lancetti that in the year 1820 the Marquis markí Carlo kárlou dal dél Negro nígrou, of Genoa jénoua, possessed pazést a Harp hárp bearing béring the name néim of Stradivari. Mandolines and other stringed stríngd instruments ínstramants have been seen sín with his name néim attached atécht.]

"In the year 1682, on the 8th of September septémbar, the banker bénkar Michele mishél Monzi, of Venice vénas, sent sént him an order órdar for the whole hóul set of Violins vaialínz, Altos éltouz, and Violoncellos which that gentleman jéntalman sent sént as a present prézant to King kíng James jéimz of England íngland."[18] The interesting íntrasting remarks rimárks of Arisi with regard ragárd to the inlaid ínleid instruments ínstramants of Stradivari are those we should expect ikspékt from an admirer edmáirar of delicate délakat artistic artístik work, who possessed pazést no special spéshal knowledge nálaj of Violins vaialínz as instruments ínstramants of music myúzik. The existence egzístans of some of the instruments ínstramants to which he refers rafárz, together tagédhar with the tracings of the actual ékchawal designs dizáinz and the tools túlz with which the work was accomplished akámplisht, render réndar his observations abzarvéishanz, read réd at this distance dístans of time, peculiarly pikyúlyarli pleasing plízing. The possessor pazésar of the models mádalz, tools túlz, labels léibalz, and drawings dróingz used by Stradivari is the Marquis markí Dalla déla Valle véil, of Casale kasáli, to whom húm they passed pést by inheritance inhératans from his great-uncle gréit-ánkal, Count káunt Cozio, who purchased párchast them in 1775.

[Footnote fútnout 18: These instruments ínstramants were probably prábabli sent sént to England íngland in 1685, or later léitar.]

Vincenzo vinsénzou Lancetti, referring rifáring to the collection kalékshan, after mention ménshan of Stradivari having héving been buried bérid in the Church chárch of S. Domenico douméinikou, continues kantínyuz, "As appears apírz from the correspondence koraspándans held héld in 1775, by the said Count káunt Cozio with Antonio's entóuniou son sán Paolo páulou Stradivari, cloth klóth merchant márchant, when the former fórmar bought bát of the latter létar all the remaining riméining Violins vaialínz, the forms fórmz, the patterns pétarnz, moulds móuldz, and drawings dróingz of the said celebrated sélabreitad Antonio entóuniou, as well as those of the Amati amáti, with which he enriched enrícht his collection kalékshan." In an article ártakal published páblisht in the "Gazzetta Piedmontese," October aktóubar, 1881, upon apán the occasion akéizhan of the exhibition eksabíshan, at Milan malán, of the relics réliks of the shop sháp of Stradivari, the writer ráitar gives gívz the following fálouing account akáunt of the negotiations nagoushiéishanz: "Count káunt Cozio, a great patron péitran, intimate íntamat with the greatest gréitast artists ártists of the period píriad, especially aspéshli with Rolla rála, purchased párchast, through the instrumentality instramentéliti of the firm fárm of merchants márchants, Anselmi ansélmi di Briata, from Paolo páulou and Antonio entóuniou junior júnyar, respectively rispéktivli son sán and nephew néfyu of Antonio entóuniou Stradivari, in 1776, all the tools túlz, drawings dróingz, labels léibalz, &c., which had been used by the celebrated sélabreitad Violin-maker vaialín-méikar, and his heirs érz, who were desirous dizáiras that nothing náthing belonging bilónging to him should remain riméin in his native néitiv town táun, as it is inferred infárd, from a curious kyúrias document dákyament, hastened héisand to conclude kanklúd the sale séil."[19] It is certain sártan, however, that Lancetti received rasívd his information infarméishan from the Count káunt himself himsélf, and negotiations nagoushiéishanz were certainly sártanli carried kérid on between Paolo páulou and the Count káunt, either ídhar directly daréktli or through his agents éijants, Anselmi ansélmi di Briata.

[Footnote fútnout 19: Upon apán reference réfarans to the copy kápi of this document dákyament (the correspondence koraspándans is given in the fourth fórth edition adíshan of this work), I find the words wárdz used by Paolo páulou Stradivari to his correspondents koraspándants Anselmi ansélmi di Briata run rán, after commenting kámenting upon apán the price práis offered ófard, "However, to show shóu my desire dizáiar to please plíz you, and in order órdar that not a single síngal thing thíng belonging bilónging to my father fádhar be left in Cremona, &c.," having héving reference réfarans, possibly pásabli, to some supposed sapóuzd feeling fíling of indifference indífarans on the part of the municipal myunísapal authorities athóratiz towards tawórdz the memory mémari of Antonio entóuniou Stradivari, they not having héving secured sikyúrd the moulds móuldz, patterns pétarnz, &c.]

The contents kántents of the letters létarz of Paolo páulou and Antonio entóuniou Stradivari junior júnyar, which the Marquis markí Dalla déla Valle véil has placed pléist at my disposal dispóuzal, serve sárv to explain ikspléin the two different accounts akáunts above abáv given. We find that the Count káunt had two distinct distínkt transactions trenzékshanz, directly daréktli or indirectly indaréktli, with the family fémali of Stradivari. In 1775 he purchased párchast the ten tén instruments ínstramants made by Antonio entóuniou which remained riméind out of ninety-one náintiwán (complete kamplít and partly pártli finished fínisht) left by the maker méikar at the time of his death déth in 1737. The payment péimant in connection kanékshan with this transaction trenzékshan was arranged aréinjd by the banker bénkar Carlo kárlou Carli kárli, which gave géiv rise ráiz to the inventory invantóri upon apán which M. Fetis based béist his statement stéitmant as to the age éij of Stradivari. In the month mánth of May, 1776, negotiations nagoushiéishanz were entered éntard upon apán with Paolo páulou Stradivari, relative rélativ to the tools túlz, which led léd to their being sold sóuld. During their progress prágres Paolo páulou died dáid, October aktóubar, 1776, and the business bíznas was left for his son sán Antonio entóuniou to complete kamplít in December disémbar, 1776. The copies kápiz of the letters létarz written rítan by Paolo páulou and Antonio entóuniou Stradivari are given in the fourth fórth edition adíshan of this work, and the chief chíf part of the matter métar therein dherín is referred rafárd to in the Section sékshan, "The Violin vaialín and its Votaries."

The next period píriad to be noticed nóutast relative rélativ to the work of Stradivari is that dating déiting from 1686 to 1694. We here observe abzárv a marked márkt advance advéns in every particular partíkyalar. The form fórm is flatter flétar, the arching árching differently dífrantli treated trítad. The sound-hole sáundhóul, which is a masterpiece méstarpis of gracefulness, reclines rikláinz more. The curves kárvz of the middle mídal bouts báuts are more extended iksténdad than in this maker's méikar later léitar instruments ínstramants. The corners kórnarz are brought brót out, though dhóu not prominently prámanantli so. Here, too, we notice nóutas the change chéinj in the formation forméishan of the scroll skróul. He suddenly sádanli leaves lívz the form fórm that he had hitherto hídhartú imitated ímateitid, and follows fálouz the dictates diktéits of his own fancy fénsi. The result rizált is bold bóuld and striking stráiking, and foreshadows forshédouz much of the character kériktar belonging bilónging to the bodies bádiz of the instruments ínstramants of his latter létar period píriad, and though dhóu it may seem sím daring déring and presumptuous prizámpchawas criticism krítisizam, I have often ófan been impressed imprést with the idea aidía that these scrolls skróulz would have been more in harmony hármani with his later léitar works wárks than those to which they belong bilóng. The varnish várnish on the instruments ínstramants belonging bilónging to the period píriad under consideration kansidaréishan is very varied vérid. Sometimes samtáimz it is of a rich rích golden góuldan colour, deliciously dilíshashli soft sáft and transparent trenspérant; in other instances ínstansaz he has used varnish várnish of a deeper dípar hue hyú, which might be described diskráibd as light láit red réd, the quality kwálati of which is also very beautiful byútafal. The purfling is a trifle tráifal wider wáidar, but narrower nérouar than that afterwards éftarwardz used.

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