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All About Coffee káfi
by William wílyam H. Ukers
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Transcriber's trenskráibar Note nóut

The punctuation pankchuéishan and spelling spéling from the original aríjanal text tékst have been faithfully féithfali preserved prazárvd. Only obvious ábvias typographical taipagréfikal errors érarz have been corrected karéktad.

_All About

Coffee káfi_

ALL ABOUT COFFEE káfi

ALL ABOUT COFFEE káfi

By

WILLIAM wílyam H. UKERS, M.A.

Editor édatar

THE TEA AND COFFEE káfi TRADE tréid JOURNAL járnal

NEW YORK yórk

THE TEA AND COFFEE káfi TRADE tréid JOURNAL járnal COMPANY

1922

COPYRIGHT kápirait 1922

BY

THE TEA AND COFFEE káfi TRADE tréid JOURNAL járnal COMPANY

NEW YORK yórk

International intarnéshanal Copyright kápirait Secured sikyúrd

All Rights ráits Reserved rizárvd in U.S.A. and Foreign fóran Countries kántriz

PRINTED príntad IN U.S.A.

To My Wife wáif

HELEN hélan DE GRAFF gréf UKERS

PREFACE préfas

Seventeen sévantín years ago agóu the author óthar of this work made his first trip tríp abroad abród to gather gédhar material matírial for a book búk on coffee káfi. Subsequently sábsakwantli he spent spént a year in travel tréval among amáng the coffee-producing káfi-pradúsing countries kántriz. After the initial iníshal surveys sarvéiz, correspondents koraspándants were appointed apóintad to make researches risárchiz in the principal prínsapal European yurapían libraries láibreriz and museums myuzíamz; and this phase féiz of the work continued kantínyud until April éipral, 1922. Simultaneous saimaltéinias researches risárchiz were conducted kandáktad in American amérakan libraries láibreriz and historical histórikal museums myuzíamz up to the time of the return ritárn of the final fáinal proofs prúfs to the printer príntar in June jún, 1922.

Ten tén years ago agóu the sorting sórting and classification klesafakéishan of the material matírial was begun bigán. The actual ékchawal writing ráiting of the manuscript ményaskript has extended iksténdad over four years.

Among amáng the unique yuník features fícharz of the book búk are the Coffee káfi Thesaurus thasóras; the Coffee káfi Chronology kranálaji, containing kantéining 492 dates déits of historical histórikal importance impórtans; the Complete kamplít Reference réfarans Table téibal of the Principal prínsapal Kinds káindz of Coffee káfi Grown gróun in the World; and the Coffee káfi Bibliography bibliágrafi, containing kantéining 1,380 references réfaransiz.

The most authoritative athórateitiv works wárks on this subject sabjékt have been Robinson's rábansan The Early árli History hístari of Coffee káfi Houses háusaz in England íngland, published páblisht in London lándan in 1893; and Jardin's járdin Le la Cafe kaféi, published páblisht in Paris péris in 1895. The author óthar wishes wíshiz to acknowledge eknálij his indebtedness indétidnis to both for inspiration insparéishan and guidance gáidans. Other works wárks, Arabian aréibian, French frénch, English ínglish, German járman, and Italian itélyan, dealing díling with particular partíkyalar phases féizaz of the subject sabjékt, have been laid léid under contribution kantrabyúshan; and where this has been done dán, credit krédat is given by footnote fútnout reference réfarans. In all cases kéisaz where it has been possible pásabal to do so, however, statements stéitmants of historical histórikal facts fékts have been verified vérafaid by independent indipéndant research risárch. Not a few items áitamz have required rikwáiard months mánths of tracing tréising to confirm kanfárm or to disprove disprúv.

There has been no serious sírias American amérakan work on coffee káfi since Hewitt's hyúit Coffee káfi: Its History hístari, Cultivation kaltivéishan and Uses yúsaz, published páblisht in 1872; and Thurber's thárbar Coffee káfi from Plantation plentéishan to Cup káp, published páblisht in 1881. Both of these are now out of print prínt, as is also Walsh's wólsh Coffee káfi: Its History hístari, Classification klesafakéishan and Description diskrípshan, published páblisht in 1893.

The chapters chéptarz on The Chemistry kémastri of Coffee káfi and The Pharmacology farmakálaji of Coffee káfi have been prepared pripérd under the author's óthar direction darékshan by Charles chárlz W. Trigg tríg, industrial indástrial fellow félou of the Mellon mélan Institute ínstatut of Industrial indástrial Research risárch.

The author óthar wishes wíshiz to acknowledge eknálij, with thanks thénks, valuable vélyabal assistance asístans and numerous númaras courtesies kártasiz by the officials afíshalz of the following fálouing institutions institúshanz:

British brítish Museum myuzíam, and Guildhall gíldhol Museum myuzíam, London lándan; Bibliotheque Nationale néshanelei, Paris péris; Congressional kangréshanal Library láibreri, Washington wáshingtan; New York yórk Public páblik Library láibreri, Metropolitan metrapálatan Museum myuzíam of Art árt, and New York yórk Historical histórikal Society sasáiati, New York yórk; Boston bástan Public páblik Library láibreri, and Boston bástan Museum myuzíam of Fine fáin Arts árts; Smithsonian smithsóunian Institution institúshan, Washington wáshingtan; State stéit Historical histórikal Museum myuzíam, Madison médasan, Wis wís.; Maine méin Historical histórikal Society sasáiati, Portland pórtland; Chicago shakágou Historical histórikal Society sasáiati; New Jersey járzi Historical histórikal Society sasáiati, Newark núark; Harvard hárvard University yunavársati Library láibreri; Essex ésiks Institute ínstatut, Salem séilam, Mass més.; Peabody píbadi Institute ínstatut, Baltimore bóltamor.

Thanks thénks and appreciation aprishiéishan are due also to:

Charles chárlz James jéimz Jackson jéksan, London lándan, for permission parmíshan to quote kwóut from his Illustrated ílastreitad History hístari of English ínglish Plate pléit;

Francis frénsas Hill híl Bigelow bígalou, author óthar; and The Macmillan makmílan Company, publishers páblisharz, for permission parmíshan to reproduce ripradús illustrations ilastréishanz from Historic histórik Silver sílvar of the Colonies kálaniz;

H.G. Dwight dwáit, author óthar; and Charles chárlz Scribner's skríbnar Sons sánz, publishers páblisharz, for permission parmíshan to quote kwóut from Constantinople kanstentanóupal, Old and New, and from the article ártakal on "Turkish tárkish Coffee káfi Houses háusaz" in Scribner's skríbnar Magazine mégazin;

Walter wóltar G. Peter pítar, Washington wáshingtan, D.C., for permission parmíshan to photograph fóutagref and reproduce ripradús pictures píkcharz of articles ártakalz in the Peter pítar collection kalékshan at the United yunáitad States stéits National néshanal Museum myuzíam;

Mary méri P. Hamlin hémlin and George jórj Arliss, authors ótharz, and George jórj C. Tyler táilar, producer pradúsar, for permission parmíshan to reproduce ripradús the Exchange ikschéinj coffee-house káfiháus setting séting of the first act ékt of Hamilton hémaltan;

Judge jáj A.T. Clearwater klírwotar, Kingston kíngstan N.Y.; R.T. Haines héinz Halsey hélsi, and Francis frénsas P. Garvan, New York yórk, for permission parmíshan to publish páblish pictures píkcharz of historic histórik silver sílvar coffee káfi pots páts in their several sévral collections kalékshanz;

The secretaries sékrateriz of the American amérakan Chambers chéimbarz of Commerce kámars in London lándan, Paris péris, and Berlin barlín;

Charles chárlz Cooper kúpar, London lándan, for his splendid spléndad co-operation kóu-aparéishan and for his special spéshal contribution kantrabyúshan to chapter chéptar XXXV;

Alonzo alánzou H. De Graff gréf, London lándan, for his invaluable invélyabal aid éid and unflagging anfléging zeal zíl in directing darékting the London lándan researches risárchiz;

To the Coffee káfi Trade tréid Association asousiéishan, London lándan, for assistance asístans rendered réndard;

To G.J. Lethem, London lándan, for his translations trenzléishanz from the Arabic érabik;

Geoffrey jéfri Sephton, Vienna viéna, for his nice náis co-operation kóu-aparéishan;

L.P. de Bussy of the Koloniaal Institute ínstatut, Amsterdam émstardem, Holland háland, for assistance asístans rendered réndard;

Burton bártan Holmes hóumz and Blendon R. Campbell kémbal, New York yórk, for courtesies kártasiz;

John ján Cotton kátan Dana déina, Newark núark, N.J., for assistance asístans rendered réndard;

Charles chárlz H. Barnes bárnz, Medford médfard, Mass més., for permission parmíshan to publish páblish the photograph fóutagref of Peregrine péragrin White's wáit Mayflower méiflauar mortar mórtar and pestle;

Andrew éndru L. Winton wíntan, Ph píéich.D., Wilton wíltan, Conn kán., for permission parmíshan to quote kwóut from his The Microscopy maikráskapi of Vegetable véjtabal Foods fúdz in the chapter chéptar on The Microscopy maikráskapi of Coffee káfi and to reprint riprínt Prof. J. Moeller's móular and Tschirch and Oesterle's óustaral drawings dróingz;

F. Hulton háltan Frankel frénkal, Ph píéich.D., Edward édward M. Frankel frénkal, Ph píéich.D., and Arno árnou Viehoever, for their assistance asístans in preparing pripéring the chapters chéptarz on The Botany bátani of Coffee káfi and The Microscopy maikráskapi of Coffee káfi;

A.L. Burns bárnz, New York yórk, for his assistance asístans in the correction karékshan and revision rivízhan of chapters chéptarz XXV, XXVI, XXVII, and XXXIV, and for much historical histórikal information infarméishan supplied sapláid in connection kanékshan with chapters chéptarz XXX and XXXI;

Edward édward Aborn abórn, New York yórk, for his help hélp in the revision rivízhan of chapter chéptar XXXVI;

George jórj W. Lawrence lórans, former fórmar president prézadent, and T.S.B. Nielsen nílsan, president prézadent, of the New York yórk Coffee káfi and Sugar shúgar Exchange ikschéinj, for their assistance asístans in the revision rivízhan of chapter chéptar XXXI;

Helio Lobo lóubou, Brazilian brazílyan consul kánsal general jénaral, New York yórk; Sebastiao Sampaio, commercial kamárshal attache etashéi of the Brazilian brazílyan Embassy émbasi, Washington wáshingtan; and Th tíéich. Langgaard de Menezes meinéizes, American amérakan representative reprazéntativ of the Sociedade Promotora da Defeza do Cafe kaféi;

Felix fíliks Coste kóust, secretary sékrateri and manager ménajar, the National néshanal Coffee káfi Roasters róustarz Association asousiéishan; and C.B. Stroud stráud, superintendent suparanténdant, the New York yórk Coffee káfi and Sugar shúgar Exchange ikschéinj, for information infarméishan supplied sapláid and assistance asístans rendered réndard in the revision rivízhan of several sévral chapters chéptarz;

F.T. Holmes hóumz, New York yórk, for his help hélp in the compilation kampaléishan of chronological kranalájikal and descriptive diskríptiv data déita on coffee-roasting káfi-róusting machinery mashínari;

Walter wóltar Chester chéstar, New York yórk, for critical krítikal comments káments on chapter chéptar XXVIII.

The author óthar is especially aspéshli indebted indétad to the following fálouing, who in many ways wéiz have contributed kantríbyutid to the successful saksésfal compilation kampaléishan of the Complete kamplít Reference réfarans Table téibal in chapter chéptar XXIV, and of those chapters chéptarz having héving to do with the early árli history hístari and development divélapmant of the green grín coffee káfi and the wholesale hóulseil coffee-roasting káfi-róusting trades tréidz in the United yunáitad States stéits:

George jórj S. Wright ráit, Boston bástan; A.E. Forbes fórbz, William wílyam Fisher físhar, Gwynne gwín Evans évanz, Jerome jaróum J. Schotten, and the late léit Julius júlyas J. Schotten, St strít. Louis lúis; James jéimz H. Taylor téilar, William wílyam Bayne béin, Jr., A.J. Dannemiller dénamilar, B.A. Livierato, S.A. Schonbrunn, Herbert hárbart Wilde wáild, A.C. Fitzpatrick fitspétrik, Charles chárlz Meehan mían, Clarence klérans Creighton kréitan, Abram abrém Wakeman wéikman, A.H. Davies déiviz, Joshua jáshua Walker wókar, Fred fréd P. Gordon górdan, Alex élaks. H. Purcell parsél, George jórj W. Vanderhoef véndarhouf, Col. William wílyam P. Roome rúm, W. Lee Simmonds símandz, Herman hárman Simmonds símandz, W.H. Aborn abórn, B. Lahey léihi, John ján C. Loudon láudan, J.R. Westfal, Abraham éibrahem Reamer rímar, R.C. Wilhelm wílhelm, C.H. Stewart stúart, and the late léit August ágast Haeussler háuslar, New York yórk; John ján D. Warfield wórfild, Ezra ézra J. Warner wórnar, S.O. Blair blér, and George jórj D. McLaughlin magláklan, Chicago shakágou; W.H. Harrison hérisan, James jéimz Heekin híkin, and Charles chárlz Lewis lúis, Cincinnati sinsanéti; Albro élbrou Blodgett blájit and A.M. Woolson wúlsan, Toledo talídou; R.V. Engelhard éngalhard and Lee G. Zinsmeister zínsmaistar, Louisville lúivil; E.A. Kahl kál, San sén Francisco frensískou; S. Jackson jéksan, New Orleans órlianz; Lewis lúis Sherman shárman, Milwaukee milwóki; Howard háuard F. Boardman bórdman, Hartford hártfard; A.H. Devers dévarz, Portland pórtland, Ore ór.; W. James jéimz Mahood máhud, Pittsburgh pítsbarg; William wílyam B. Harris héris, East íst Orange óranj, N.J.

New York yórk, June jún 17, 1922.

FOREWORD fórward

Some introductory intradáktari remarks rimárks on the lure lúr of coffee káfi, its place in a rational réshanal dietary dáiateri, its universal yunavársal psychological saikalájikal appeal apíl, its use and abuse abyús

Civilization sivalizéishan in its onward ónward march márch has produced pradúst only three important impórtant non-alcoholic nán-elkahálik beverages bévrijiz—the extract ékstrekt of the tea plant plént, the extract ékstrekt of the cocoa kóukou bean bín, and the extract ékstrekt of the coffee káfi bean bín.

Leaves lívz and beans bínz—these are the vegetable véjtabal sources sórsaz of the world's favorite féivarit non-alcoholic nán-elkahálik table-beverages téibal-bévrijiz. Of the two, the tea leaves lívz lead léd in total tóutal amount amáunt consumed kansúmd; the coffee káfi beans bínz are second; and the cocoa kóukou beans bínz are a distant dístant third thárd, although advancing advénsing steadily stédali. But in international intarnéshanal commerce kámars the coffee káfi beans bínz occupy ákyapai a far fár more important impórtant position pazíshan than either ídhar of the others ádharz, being imported impórtid into non-producing nán-pradúsing countries kántriz to twice twáis the extent ikstént of the tea leaves lívz. All three enjoy enjói a world-wide wárldwáid consumption kansámpshan, although not to the same extent ikstént in every nation néishan; but where either ídhar the coffee káfi bean bín or the tea leaf líf has established istéblisht itself itsélf in a given country kántri, the other gets géts comparatively kampérativli little attention aténshan, and usually yúzhawali has great difficulty dífakalti in making méiking any advance advéns. The cocoa kóukou bean bín, on the other hand hénd, has not risen rízan to the position pazíshan of popular pápyalar favorite féivarit in any important impórtant consuming kansúming country kántri, and so has not aroused aráuzd the serious sírias opposition apazíshan of its two rivals ráivalz.

Coffee káfi is universal yunavársal in its appeal apíl. All nations néishanz do it homage ámaj. It has become bikám recognized rékagnaizd as a human hyúman necessity nasésati. It is no longer lóngar a luxury lágzhari or an indulgence indáljans; it is a corollary kóraleri of human hyúman energy énarji and human hyúman efficiency ifíshansi. People love láv coffee káfi because of its two-fold túfóuld effect ifékt—the pleasurable plézharabal sensation senséishan and the increased inkríst efficiency ifíshansi it produces pradúsaz.

Coffee káfi has an important impórtant place in the rational réshanal dietary dáiateri of all the civilized sívalaizd peoples pípalz of earth árth. It is a democratic demakrétik beverage bévarij. Not only is it the drink drínk of fashionable féshanabal society sasáiati, but it is also a favorite féivarit beverage bévarij of the men mén and women wíman who do the world's work, whether wédhar they toil tóil with brain bréin or brawn brón. It has been acclaimed akléimd "the most grateful gréitfal lubricant lúbrakant known nóun to the human hyúman machine mashín," and "the most delightful diláitfal taste téist in all nature néichar."

No "food fúd drink drínk" has ever évar encountered inkáuntard so much opposition apazíshan as coffee káfi. Given to the world by the church chárch and dignified dígnafaid by the medical médakal profession praféshan, nevertheless nevardhalés it has had to suffer sáfar from religious rilíjas superstition suparstíshan and medical médakal prejudice préjadis. During the thousand tháuzand years of its development divélapmant it has experienced ikspírianst fierce fírs political palítakal opposition apazíshan, stupid stúpad fiscal fískal restrictions ristríkshanz, unjust anjást taxes téksaz, irksome árksam duties dútiz; but, surviving sarváiving all of these, it has triumphantly traiámfantli moved múvd on to a foremost fórmoust place in the catalog kétalog of popular pápyalar beverages bévrijiz.

But coffee káfi is something more than a beverage bévarij. It is one of the world's greatest gréitast adjuvant foods fúdz. There are other auxiliary agzílyari foods fúdz, but none nán that excels iksélz it for palatability pelatabílati and comforting kámfarting effects ifékts, the psychology saikálaji of which is to be found in its unique yuník flavor fléivar and aroma aróuma.

Men mén and women wíman drink drínk coffee káfi because it adds édz to their sense séns of well-being wélbíing. It not only smells smélz good and tastes téists good to all mankind ménkáind, heathen hídhan or civilized sívalaizd, but all respond rispánd to its wonderful wándarfal stimulating stímyaleiting properties prápartiz. The chief chíf factors féktarz in coffee káfi goodness gúdnas are the caffein content kántent and the caffeol. Caffein supplies sapláiz the principal prínsapal stimulant stímyalant. It increases inkrísaz the capacity kapésati for muscular máskyalar and mental méntal work without harmful hármfal reaction riékshan. The caffeol supplies sapláiz the flavor fléivar and the aroma aróuma—that indescribable indiskráibabal Oriental oriéntal fragrance fréigrans that wooes us through the nostrils nástralz, forming fórming one of the principal prínsapal elements élamants that make up the lure lúr of coffee káfi. There are several sévral other constituents kanstíchuants, including inklúding certain sártan innocuous inákyuas so-called sóukóld caffetannic acids ésadz, that, in combination kambanéishan with the caffeol, give the beverage bévarij its rare rér gustatory appeal apíl.

The year 1919 awarded awórdad coffee káfi one of its brightest bráitast honors ánarz. An American amérakan general jénaral said that coffee káfi shared shérd with bread bréd and bacon béikan the distinction distínkshan of being one of the three nutritive nútrativ essentials esénchalz that helped hélpt win wín the World War wór for the Allies élaiz. So this symbol símbal of human hyúman brotherhood brádharhud has played pléid a not inconspicuous inkánspikwas part in "making méiking the world safe séif for democracy dimákrasi." The new age éij, ushered áshard in by the Peace pís of Versailles versái and the Washington wáshingtan Conference kánfarans, has for its hand-maidens hénd-méidanz temperance témparans and self-control sélf-kantróul. It is to be a world democracy dimákrasi of right-living ráit-líving and clear klír thinking thínking; and among amáng its most precious préshas adjuncts éjankts are coffee káfi, tea, and cocoa kóukou—because these beverages bévrijiz must always be associated asóusieitad with rational réshanal living líving, with greater gréitar comfort kámfart, and with better bétar cheer chír.

Like all good things in life, the drinking drínking of coffee káfi may be abused abyúzd. Indeed indíd, those having héving an idiosyncratic idiousinkrétik susceptibility saseptabílati to alkaloids élkaloidz should be temperate témprat in the use of tea, coffee káfi, or cocoa kóukou. In every high-tensioned country kántri there is likely láikli to be a small number of people who, because of certain sártan individual indavíjawal characteristics keraktarístiks, can not drink drínk coffee káfi at all. These belong bilóng to the abnormal ebnórmal minority mainórati of the human hyúman family fémali. Some people can not eat ít strawberries stróberiz; but that would not be a valid vélad reason rízan for a general jénaral condemnation kandamnéishan of strawberries stróberiz. One may be poisoned póizand, says séz Thomas támas A. Edison édisan, from too much food fúd. Horace hóras Fletcher fléchar was certain sártan that over-feeding óuvar-fíding causes kázaz all our ills ílz. Over-indulgence óuvar-indáljans in meat mít is likely láikli to spell spél trouble trábal for the strongest stróngast of us. Coffee káfi is, perhaps parhéps, less lés often ófan abused abyúzd than wrongly róngli accused akyúzd. It all depends dipéndz. A little more tolerance tálarans!

Trading tréiding upon apán the credulity kridúlati of the hypochondriac haipakándriek and the caffein-sensitive, in recent rísant years there has appeared apírd in America améraka and abroad abród a curious kyúrias collection kalékshan of so-called sóukóld coffee káfi substitutes sábstatuts. They are "neither nídhar fish físh nor nór flesh flésh, nor nór good red réd herring héring." Most of them have been shown shóun by official afíshal government analyses anélasiz to be sadly sédli deficient difíshant in food fúd value vélyu—their only alleged aléjd virtue várchu. One of our contemporary kantémpareri attackers atékarz of the national néshanal beverage bévarij bewails the fact fékt that no palatable pélatabal hot hát drink drínk has been found to take the place of coffee káfi. The reason rízan is not hard hárd to find. There can be no substitute sábstatut for coffee káfi. Dr dráiv. Harvey hárvi W. Wiley wáili has ably éibli summed sámd up the matter métar by saying séiing, "A substitute sábstatut should be able éibal to perform parfórm the functions fánkshanz of its principal prínsapal. A substitute sábstatut to a war wór must be able éibal to fight fáit. A bounty-jumper báunti-jámpar is not a substitute sábstatut."

It has been the aim éim of the author óthar to tell tél the whole hóul coffee káfi story stóri for the general jénaral reader rídar, yet yét with the technical téknikal accuracy ékyarasi that will make it valuable vélyabal to the trade tréid. The book búk is designed dizáind to be a work of useful yúsfal reference réfarans covering kávaring all the salient séiliant points póints of coffee's káfi origin órajan, cultivation kaltivéishan, preparation preparéishan, and development divélapmant, its place in the world's commerce kámars and in a rational réshanal dietary dáiateri.

Good coffee káfi, carefully kérfali roasted róustad and properly práparli brewed brúd, produces pradúsaz a natural nécharal beverage bévarij that, for tonic tánik effect ifékt, can not be surpassed sarpést, even by its rivals ráivalz, tea and cocoa kóukou. Here is a drink drínk that ninety-seven náinti-sévan percent parsént of individuals indavíjawalz find harmless hármlas and wholesome hóulsam, and without which life would be drab dréb indeed indíd—a pure pyúr, safe séif, and helpful hélpfal stimulant stímyalant compounded kampáundad in nature's néichar own laboratory lébratori, and one of the chief chíf joys jóiz of life!

CONTENTS kántents

A COFFEE káfi THESAURUS thasóras

Encomiums and descriptive diskríptiv phrases fréizaz applied apláid to the plant plént, the berry béri, and the beverage bévarij Page péij XXVII

THE EVOLUTION evalúshan OF A CUP káp OF COFFEE káfi

Showing shóuing the various vérias steps stéps through which the bean bín passes pésaz from plantation plentéishan to cup káp Page péij XXIX

CHAPTER chéptar I

DEALLING WITH THE ETYMOLOGY etamálaji OF COFFEE káfi

Origin órajan and translation trenzléishan of the word wárd from the Arabian aréibian into various vérias languages léngwajaz—Views vyúz of many writers ráitarz Page péij 1

CHAPTER chéptar II

HISTORY hístari OF COFFEE káfi PROPAGATION prapagéishan

A brief bríf account akáunt of the cultivation kaltivéishan of the coffee káfi plant plént in the Old World, and of its introduction intradákshan into the New—A romantic rouméntik coffee káfi adventure edvénchar Page péij 5

CHAPTER chéptar III

EARLY árli HISTORY hístari OF COFFEE káfi DRINKING drínking

Coffee káfi in the Near nír East íst in the early árli centuries sénchariz—Stories stóriz of its origin órajan—Discovery diskávari by physicians fazíshanz and adoption adápshan by the Church chárch—Its spread spréd through Arabia aréibia, Persia párzha, and Turkey tárki—Persecutions parsakyúshans and Intolerances—Early árli coffee káfi manners ménarz and customs kástamz Page péij 11

CHAPTER chéptar IV

INTRODUCTION intradákshan OF COFFEE káfi INTO WESTERN wéstarn EUROPE yúrap

When the three great temperance témparans beverages bévrijiz, cocoa kóukou, tea, and coffee káfi, came to Europe yúrap—Coffee káfi first mentioned ménshand by Rauwolf in 1582—Early árli days déiz of coffee káfi in Italy ítali—How Pope póup Clement klémant VIII baptized beptáizd it and made it a truly trúli Christian kríschan beverage bévarij—The first European yurapían coffee káfi house, in Venice vénas, 1645—The famous féimas Caffe Florian flórian—Other celebrated sélabreitad Venetian vaníshan coffee káfi houses háusaz of the eighteenth eitínth century sénchari—The romantic rouméntik story stóri of Pedrocchi, the poor púr lemonade-vender, who built bílt the most beautiful byútafal coffee káfi house in the world Page péij 25

CHAPTER chéptar V

THE BEGINNINGS bigíningz OF COFFEE káfi IN FRANCE fréns

What French frénch travelers trévalarz did for coffee káfi—the introduction intradákshan of coffee káfi by P. de la Roque róuk into Marseilles marsáilas in 1644—The first commercial kamárshal importation importéishan of coffee káfi from Egypt íjapt—The first French frénch coffee káfi house—Failure féilyar of the attempt atémpt by physicians fazíshanz of Marseilles marsáilas to discredit diskrédat coffee káfi—Soliman sáliman Aga ága introduces intradúsiz coffee káfi into Paris péris—Cabarets kebaréiz a caffe—Celebrated sélabreitad works wárks on coffee káfi by French frénch writers ráitarz Page péij 31

CHAPTER chéptar VI vái

THE INTRODUCTION intradákshan OF COFFEE káfi INTO ENGLAND íngland

The first printed príntad reference réfarans to coffee káfi in English ínglish—Early árli mention ménshan of coffee káfi by noted nóutad English ínglish travelers trévalarz and writers ráitarz—The Lacedaemonian "black blék broth bróth" controversy kántravarsi—How Conopios introduced intradúst coffee káfi drinking drínking at Oxford áksfard—The first English ínglish coffee káfi house in Oxford áksfard—Two English ínglish botanists bátanists on coffee káfi Page péij 35

CHAPTER chéptar VII

THE INTRODUCTION intradákshan OF COFFEE káfi INTO HOLLAND háland

How the enterprising éntarpraizing Dutch dách traders tréidarz captured képchard the first world's market márkat for coffee káfi—Activities ektívatiz of the Netherlands nédharlandz East íst India índia Company—The first coffee káfi house at the Hague héig—The first public páblik auction ákshan at Amsterdam émstardem in 1711, when Java jáva coffee káfi brought brót forty-seven fórti-sévan cents sénts a pound páund, green grín Page péij 43

CHAPTER chéptar VIII

THE INTRODUCTION intradákshan OF COFFEE káfi INTO GERMANY jármani

The contributions kantrabyúshanz made by German járman travelers trévalarz and writers ráitarz to the literature lítarachar of the early árli history hístari of coffee káfi—The first coffee káfi house in Hamburg hémbarg opened óupand by an English ínglish merchant márchant—Famous féimas coffee káfi houses háusaz of old Berlin barlín—The first coffee káfi periodical piriádikal and the first kaffee-klatsch—Frederick frédrik the Great's coffee káfi roasting róusting monopoly manápali—Coffee káfi persecutions parsakyúshans—"Coffee-smellers"—The first coffee káfi king kíng Page péij 45

CHAPTER chéptar IX

TELLING téling HOW COFFEE káfi CAME TO VIENNA viéna

The romantic rouméntik adventure edvénchar of Franz frénz George jórj Kolschitzky, who carried kérid "a message mésaj to Garcia garsía" through the enemy's énami lines láinz and won wán for himself himsélf the honor ánar of being the first to teach tích the Viennese viénis the art árt of making méiking coffee káfi, to say nothing náthing of falling fáling heir ér to the supplies sapláiz of the green grín beans bínz left behind biháind by the Turks tárks; also the gift gíft of a house from a grateful gréitfal municipality myunisapélati, and a statue stéchu after death déth—Affectionate afékshanat regard ragárd in which "Brother-heart brádhar-hárt" Kolschitzky is held héld as the patron péitran saint séint of the Vienna viéna Kaffee-sieder—Life in the early árli Vienna viéna cafe's kaféi Page péij 49

CHAPTER chéptar X

THE COFFEE káfi HOUSES háusaz OF OLD LONDON lándan

One of the most picturesque píkcharask chapters chéptarz in the history hístari of coffee káfi—The first coffee káfi house in London lándan—The first coffee káfi handbill héndbil, and the first newspaper núzpeipar advertisement advártazmant for coffee káfi—Strange stréinj coffee káfi mixtures míkscharz—Fantastic fentéstik coffee káfi claims kléimz—Coffee káfi prices práisaz and coffee káfi licenses láisansiz—Coffee káfi club kláb of the Rota róuta—Early árli coffee-house káfiháus manners ménarz and customs kástamz—Coffee-house káfiháus keepers kíparz' tokens tóukanz—Opposition apazíshan to the coffee káfi house—"Penny péni universities yunavársatiz"—Weird wírd coffee káfi substitutes sábstatuts—The proposed prapóuzd coffee-house káfiháus newspaper núzpeipar monopoly manápali—Evolution evalúshan of the club kláb—Decline dikláin and fall fól of the coffee káfi house—Pen pén pictures píkcharz of coffee-house káfiháus life—Famous féimas coffee káfi houses háusaz of the seventeenth sévantínth and eighteenth eitínth centuries sénchariz—Some Old World pleasure plézhar gardens gárdanz—Locating lóukeiting the notable nóutabal coffee káfi houses háusaz Page péij 53

CHAPTER chéptar XI shí

HISTORY hístari OF THE EARLY árli PARISIAN parízhan COFFEE káfi HOUSES háusaz

The introduction intradákshan of coffee káfi into Paris péris by Thevenot in 1657—How Soliman sáliman Aga ága established istéblisht the custom kástam of coffee káfi drinking drínking at the court kórt of Louis lúis XIV—Opening óupaning of the first coffee káfi houses háusaz—How the French frénch adaptation edaptéishan of the Oriental oriéntal coffee káfi house first appeared apírd in the real ríl French frénch cafe kaféi of Francois franswá Procope—Important impórtant part played pléid by the coffee káfi houses háusaz in the development divélapmant of French frénch literature lítarachar and the stage stéij—Their association asousiéishan with the Revolution revalúshan and the founding fáunding of the Republic ripáblak—Quaint kwéint customs kástamz and patrons péitranz—Historic histórik Parisian parízhan cafe's kaféi Page péij 91

CHAPTER chéptar XII

INTRODUCTION intradákshan OF COFFEE káfi INTO NORTH nórth AMERICA améraka

Captain képtan John ján Smith smíth, founder fáundar of the Colony kálani of Virginia varjínya, is the first to bring bríng to North nórth America améraka a knowledge nálaj of coffee káfi in 1607—The coffee káfi grinder gráindar on the Mayflower méiflauar—Coffee káfi drinking drínking in 1668—William wílyam Penn's pén coffee káfi purchase párchas in 1683—Coffee káfi in colonial kalóunial New England íngland—The psychology saikálaji of the Boston bástan "tea party," and why the United yunáitad States stéits became bikéim a nation néishan of coffee káfi drinkers drínkarz instead instéd of tea drinkers drínkarz, like England íngland—The first coffee káfi license láisans to Dorothy dórathi Jones jóunz in 1670—The first coffee káfi house in New England íngland—Notable nóutabal coffee káfi houses háusaz of old Boston bástan—A skyscraper skáiskreipar coffee-house káfiháus Page péij 105

CHAPTER chéptar XIII

HISTORY hístari OF COFFEE káfi IN OLD NEW YORK yórk

The burghers of New Amsterdam émstardem begin bigín to substitute sábstatut coffee káfi for "must," or beer bír, for breakfast brékfast in 1668—William wílyam Penn pén makes méiks his first purchase párchas of coffee káfi in the green grín bean bín from New York yórk merchants márchants in 1683—The King's kíng Arms ármz, the first coffee káfi house—The historic histórik Merchants márchants, sometimes samtáimz called kóld the "Birthplace bárthpleis of our Union yúnyan"—The coffee káfi house as a civic sívik forum fóram—The Exchange ikschéinj, Whitehall wáithol, Burns bárnz, Tontine, and other celebrated sélabreitad coffee káfi houses háusaz—The Vauxhall vákshol and Ranelagh pleasure plézhar gardens gárdanz Page péij 115

CHAPTER chéptar XIV

COFFEE káfi HOUSES háusaz OF OLD PHILADELPHIA filadélfia

Ye Coffee káfi House, Philadelphia's filadélfia first coffee káfi house, opened óupand about 1700—The two London lándan coffee káfi houses háusaz—The City síti tavern tévarn, or Merchants márchants coffee káfi house—How these, and other celebrated sélabreitad resorts rizórts, dominated dámaneitad the social, political palítakal, and business bíznas life of the Quaker kwéikar City síti in the eighteenth eitínth century sénchari Page péij 125

CHAPTER chéptar XV

THE BOTANY bátani OF THE COFFEE káfi PLANT plént

Its complete kamplít classification klesafakéishan by class klés, sub-class sábklés, order órdar, family fémali, genus jínas, and species spíshiz—How the Coffea arabica arébika grows gróuz, flowers fláuarz, and bears bérz—Other species spíshiz and hybrids háibradz described diskráibd—Natural nécharal caffein-free coffee káfi—Fungoid diseases dizízaz of coffee káfi Page péij 131

CHAPTER chéptar XVI

THE MICROSCOPY maikráskapi OF THE COFFEE káfi FRUIT frút

How the beans bínz may be examined igzémand under the microscope máikraskoup, and what is revealed rivíld—Structure strákchar of the berry béri, the green grín, and the roasted róustad beans bínz—The coffee-leaf káfilíf disease dizíz under the microscope máikraskoup—Value vélyu of microscopic maikraskápik analysis anélasas in detecting ditékting adulteration adaltaréishan Page péij 149

CHAPTER chéptar XVII

THE CHEMISTRY kémastri OF THE COFFEE káfi BEAN bín

By Charles chárlz W. Trigg tríg.

Chemistry kémastri of the preparation preparéishan and treatment trítmant of the green grín bean bín—Artificial artafíshal aging éijing—Renovating rénaveiting damaged démajd coffees kófiz—Extracts ékstrekts—"Caffetannic acid ésad"—Caffein, caffein-free coffee káfi—Caffeol—Fats féts and oils óilz—Carbohydrates karbouháidreits—Roasting róusting—Scientific saiantífik aspects éspekts of grinding gráinding and packaging pékijing—The coffee káfi brew brú—Soluble sályabal coffee káfi—Adulterants and substitutes sábstatuts—Official afíshal methods méthadz of analysis anélasas Page péij 155

CHAPTER chéptar XVIII

PHARMACOLOGY farmakálaji OF THE COFFEE káfi DRINK drínk

By Charles chárlz W. Trigg tríg

General jénaral physiological fizialájikal action ékshan—Effect ifékt on children—Effect ifékt on longevity lonjévati—Behavior bihéivyar in the alimentary elaméntari regime razhím—Place in dietary dáiateri—Action ékshan on bacteria bektíria—Use in medicine médasan—Physiological fizialájikal action ékshan of "caffetannic acid ésad"—Of caffeol—Of caffein—Effect ifékt of caffein on mental méntal and motor móutar efficiency ifíshansi—Conclusions kanklúzhanz Page péij 174

CHAPTER chéptar XIX

THE COMMERCIAL kamárshal COFFEES kófiz OF THE WORLD

The geographical jiagréfikal distribution distrabyúshan of the coffees kófiz grown gróun in North nórth America améraka, Central séntral America améraka, South sáuth America améraka, the West wést India índia Islands áilandz, Asia éizha, Africa éfraka, the Pacific pasífik Islands áilandz, and the East íst Indies índiz—A statistical statístikal study stádi of the distribution distrabyúshan of the principal prínsapal kinds káindz—A commercial kamárshal coffee káfi chart chárt of the world's leading líding growths gróuths, with market márkat names néimz and general jénaral trade tréid characteristics keraktarístiks Page péij 189

CHAPTER chéptar XX

CULTIVATION kaltivéishan OF THE COFFEE káfi PLANT plént

The early árli days déiz of coffee káfi culture kálchar in Abyssinia ebsínia and Arabia aréibia—Coffee káfi cultivation kaltivéishan in general jénaral—Soil sóil, climate kláimat, rainfall réinfol, altitude éltatud, propagation prapagéishan, preparing pripéring the plantation plentéishan, shade shéid, wind wínd breaks bréiks, fertilizing fártalaizing, pruning prúning, catch kéch crops kráps, pests pésts, and diseases dizízaz—How coffee káfi is grown gróun around the world—Cultivation kaltivéishan in all the principal prínsapal producing pradúsing countries kántriz Page péij 197

CHAPTER chéptar XXI

PREPARING pripéring GREEN grín COFFEE káfi FOR MARKET márkat

Early árli Arabian aréibian methods méthadz of preparation preparéishan—How primitive prímativ devices diváisaz were replaced ripléist by modern mádarn methods méthadz—A chronological kranalájikal story stóri of the development divélapmant of scientific saiantífik plantation plentéishan machinery mashínari, and the part played pléid by English ínglish and American amérakan inventors invéntarz—The marvelous márvalas coffee káfi package pékaj, one of the most ingenious injínyas in all nature néichar—How coffee káfi is harvested hárvastad—Picking píking—Preparation preparéishan by the dry drái and the wet wét methods méthadz—Pulping pálping—Fermentation farmantéishan and washing wáshing—Drying dráiing—Hulling, or peeling píling, and polishing pálishing—Sizing sáizing, or grading gréiding—Preparation preparéishan methods méthadz of different countries kántriz Page péij 245

CHAPTER chéptar XXII

THE PRODUCTION pradákshan AND CONSUMPTION kansámpshan OF COFFEE káfi

A statistical statístikal study stádi of world production pradákshan of coffee káfi by countries kántriz—Per pár capita képita figures fígyarz of the leading líding consuming kansúming countries kántriz—Coffee-consumption káfi-kansámpshan figures fígyarz compared kampérd with tea-consumption tí-kansámpshan figures fígyarz in the United yunáitad States stéits and the United yunáitad Kingdom kíngdam—Three centuries sénchariz of coffee káfi trading tréiding—Coffee káfi drinking drínking in the United yunáitad States stéits, past pést and present prézant—Reviewing rivyúing the 1921 trade tréid in the United yunáitad States stéits Page péij 273

CHAPTER chéptar XXIII

HOW GREEN grín COFFEES kófiz ARE BOUGHT bát AND SOLD sóuld

Buying báiing coffee káfi in the producing pradúsing countries kántriz—Transporting trenspórting coffee káfi to the consuming kansúming markets márkats—Some record rakórd coffee káfi cargoes kárgouz shipped shípt to the United yunáitad States stéits—Transport trenspórt over seas síz—Java jáva coffee káfi "ex-sailing éks-séiling vessels vésalz"—Handling héndling coffee káfi at New York yórk, New Orleans órlianz, and San sén Francisco frensískou—The coffee káfi exchanges ikschéinjaz of Europe yúrap and the United yunáitad States stéits—Commission kamíshan men mén and brokers bróukarz—Trade tréid and exchange ikschéinj contracts kántrekts for delivery dilívari—Important impórtant rulings rúlingz affecting afékting coffee káfi trading tréiding—Some well-known wélnóun green grín coffee káfi marks márks Page péij 303

CHAPTER chéptar XXIV

GREEN grín AND ROASTED róustad COFFEE káfi CHARACTERISTICS keraktarístiks

The trade tréid values vélyuz, bean bín characteristics keraktarístiks, and cup káp merits mérats of the leading líding coffees kófiz of commerce kámars, with a "Complete kamplít Reference réfarans Table téibal of the Principal prínsapal Kinds káindz of Coffee káfi Grown gróun in the World"—Appearance apírans, aroma aróuma, and flavor fléivar in cup-testing káp-tésting—How experts éksparts test tést coffee káfi—A typical típakal sample-roasting sémpal-róusting and cup-testing káp-tésting outfit áutfit Page péij 341

CHAPTER chéptar XXV

FACTORY féktari PREPARATION preparéishan OF ROASTED róustad COFFEE káfi

Coffee káfi roasting róusting as a business bíznas—Wholesale hóulseil coffee-roasting káfi-róusting machinery mashínari—Separating sépareiting, milling míling, and mixing míksing or blending blénding green grín coffee káfi, and roasting róusting by coal kóul, coke kóuk, gas gés, and electricity ilektrísati—Facts fékts about coffee káfi roasting róusting—Cost kást of roasting róusting—Green-coffee grínkáfi shrinkage shrínkij table téibal—"Dry drái" and "wet wét" roasts róusts—On roasting róusting coffee káfi efficiently ifíshantli—A typical típakal coal kóul roaster róustar—Cooling kúling and stoning stóuning—Finishing fínishing or glazing gléizing—Blending blénding roasted róustad coffees kófiz—Blends bléndz for restaurants réstarants—Grinding gráinding and packaging pékijing—Coffee káfi additions adíshanz and fillers fílarz—Treated trítad coffees kófiz, and dry drái extracts ékstrekts Page péij 379

CHAPTER chéptar XXVI

WHOLESALE hóulseil MERCHANDISING márchandaizing OF COFFEE káfi

How coffees kófiz are sold sóuld at wholesale hóulseil—The wholesale hóulseil salesman's séilzman place in merchandising márchandaizing—Some coffee káfi costs kásts analyzed énalaizd—Handy héndi coffee-selling káfi-séling chart chárt—Terms tármz and credits krédits—About package pékaj coffees kófiz—Various vérias types táips of coffee káfi containers kantéinarz—Coffee káfi package pékaj labels léibalz—Coffee káfi package pékaj economies ikánamiz—Practical préktakal grocer gróusar helps hélps—Coffee káfi sampling sémpling—Premium prímiam method méthad of sales séilz promotion pramóushan Page péij 407

CHAPTER chéptar XXVII

RETAIL ríteil MERCHANDISING márchandaizing OF ROASTED róustad COFFEE káfi

How coffees kófiz are sold sóuld at retail ríteil—The place of the grocer gróusar, the tea and coffee káfi dealer dílar, the chain chéin store stór, and the wagon-route wéganrút distributer in the scheme skím of distribution distrabyúshan—Starting stárting in the retail ríteil coffee káfi business bíznas—Small roasters róustarz for retail ríteil dealers dílarz—Model mádal coffee káfi departments dipártmants—Creating kriéiting a coffee káfi trade tréid—Meeting míting competition kampatíshan—Splitting splíting nickels níkalz—Figuring fígyaring costs kásts and profits práfits—A credit krédat policy pálasi for retailers ríteilarz—Premiums prímiamz Page péij 415

CHAPTER chéptar XXVIII

A SHORT shórt HISTORY hístari OF COFFEE káfi ADVERTISING édvartaizing

Early árli coffee káfi advertising édvartaizing—The first coffee káfi advertisement advártazmant in 1587 was frank frénk propaganda prapagénda for the legitimate lajítamat use of coffee káfi—The first printed príntad advertisement advártazmant in English ínglish—The first newspaper núzpeipar advertisement advártazmant—Early árli advertisements édvartaizmants in colonial kalóunial America améraka—Evolution evalúshan of advertising édvartaizing—Package pékaj coffee káfi advertising édvartaizing—Advertising édvartaizing to the trade tréid—Advertising édvartaizing by means mínz of newspapers núzpeiparz, magazines mégazinz, billboards bílbordz, electric iléktrik signs sáinz, motion móushan pictures píkcharz, demonstrations demanstréishanz, and by samples sémpalz—Advertising édvartaizing for retailers ríteilarz—Advertising édvartaizing by government propaganda prapagénda—The Joint jóint Coffee káfi Trade tréid publicity pablísati campaign kempéin in the United yunáitad States stéits—Coffee káfi advertising édvartaizing efficiency ifíshansi Page péij 431

CHAPTER chéptar XXIX

THE COFFEE káfi TRADE tréid IN THE UNITED yunáitad STATES stéits

The coffee káfi business bíznas started stártad by Dorothy dórathi Jones jóunz of Boston bástan—Some early árli sales séilz—Taxes téksaz imposed impóuzd by Congress kángras in war wór and peace pís—The first coffee-plantation-machine káfi-plentéishan-mashín, coffee-roaster káfi-róustar, coffee-grinder káfi-gráindar, and coffee-pot káfipát patents pétants—Early árli trade tréid marks márks for coffee káfi—Beginnings bigíningz of the coffee káfi urn árn, the coffee káfi container kantéinar, and the soluble-coffee sályabal-káfi business bíznas—Chronological kranalájikal record rakórd of the most important impórtant events ivénts in the history hístari of the trade tréid from the eighteenth eitínth century sénchari to the twentieth twéntiath Page péij 467

CHAPTER chéptar XXX

DEVELOPMENT divélapmant OF THE GREEN grín AND ROASTED róustad COFFEE káfi BUSINESS bíznas IN THE UNITED yunáitad STATES stéits

A brief bríf history hístari of the growth gróuth of coffee káfi trading tréiding—Notable nóutabal firms fármz and personalities parsanélitiz that have played pléid important impórtant parts párts in green grín coffee káfi in the principal prínsapal coffee káfi centers séntarz—Green grín coffee káfi trade tréid organizations organazéishanz—Growth gróuth of the wholesale hóulseil coffee-roasting káfi-róusting trade tréid, and names néimz of those who have made history hístari in it—The National néshanal Coffee káfi Roasters róustarz Association asousiéishan—Statistics statístiks of distribution distrabyúshan of coffee-roasting káfi-róusting establishments estéblishmants in the United yunáitad States stéits Page péij 475

CHAPTER chéptar XXXI

SOME BIG bíg MEN mén AND NOTABLE nóutabal ACHIEVEMENTS achívmants

B.G. Arnold árnald, the first, and Hermann hárman Sielcken, the last of the American amérakan "coffee káfi kings kíngz"—John ján Arbuckle árbakal, the original aríjanal package-coffee pékajkáfi man—Jabez Burns bárnz, the man who revolutionized revalúshanaizd the roasted-coffee róustad-káfi business bíznas by his contributions kantrabyúshanz as inventor invéntar, manufacturer menyafékcharar, and writer ráitar—Coffee káfi trade tréid booms búmz and panics péniks—Brazil's brazíl first valorization enterprise éntarpraiz—War-time wórtáim government control kantróul of coffee káfi—The story stóri of soluble sályabal coffee káfi Page péij 517

CHAPTER chéptar XXXII

A HISTORY hístari OF COFFEE káfi IN LITERATURE lítarachar

The romance rouméns of coffee káfi, and its influence ínfluans on the discourse dískors, poetry póuatri, history hístari, drama dráma, philosophic filasáfik writing ráiting, and fiction fíkshan of the seventeenth sévantínth and eighteenth eitínth centuries sénchariz and on the writers ráitarz of today tadéi—Coffee káfi quips kwíps and anecdotes énakdouts Page péij 541

CHAPTER chéptar XXXIII

COFFEE káfi IN RELATION riléishan TO THE FINE fáin ARTS árts

How coffee káfi and coffee káfi drinking drínking have been celebrated sélabreitad in painting péinting, engraving ingréiving, sculpture skálpchar, caricature kérakachar, lithography lathágrafi, and music myúzik—Epics épiks, rhapsodies, and cantatas in praise préiz of coffee káfi—Beautiful byútafal specimens spésamanz of the art árt of the potter pátar and the silversmith as shown shóun in the coffee káfi service sárvas of various vérias periods píriadz in the world's history hístari—Some historical histórikal relics réliks Page péij 587

CHAPTER chéptar XXXIV

THE EVOLUTION evalúshan OF COFFEE káfi APPARATUS eparétas

Showing shóuing the development divélapmant of coffee-roasting káfi-róusting, coffee-grinding káfi-gráinding, coffee-making káfi-méiking, and coffee-serving káfi-sárving devices diváisaz from the earliest árliast time to the present prézant day—The original aríjanal coffee káfi grinder gráindar, the first coffee káfi roaster róustar, and the first coffee káfi pot pát—The original aríjanal French frénch drip dríp pot pát, the De Belloy percolator párkaleitar—Count káunt Rumford's rámfard improvement imprúvmant—How the commercial kamárshal coffee káfi roaster róustar was developed divélapt—The evolution evalúshan of filtration filtréishan devices diváisaz—The old Carter kártar "pull-out púláut" roaster róustar—Trade tréid customs kástamz in New York yórk and St strít. Louis lúis in the sixties síkstiz and seventies sévantiz—The story stóri of the evolution evalúshan of the Burns bárnz roaster róustar—How the gas gés roaster róustar was developed divélapt in France fréns, Great Britain brítan, and the United yunáitad States stéits Page péij 615

CHAPTER chéptar XXXV

WORLD'S COFFEE káfi MANNERS ménarz AND CUSTOMS kástamz

How coffee káfi is roasted róustad, prepared pripérd, and served sárvd in all the leading líding civilized sívalaizd countries kántriz—The Arabian aréibian coffee káfi ceremony séramouni—The present-day prézant-déi coffee káfi houses háusaz of Turkey tárki—Twentieth twéntiath century sénchari improvements imprúvmants in Europe yúrap and the United yunáitad States stéits Page péij 655

CHAPTER chéptar XXXVI

PREPARATION preparéishan OF THE UNIVERSAL yunavársal BEVERAGE bévarij

The evolution evalúshan of grinding gráinding and brewing brúing methods méthadz—Coffee káfi was first a food fúd, then a wine wáin, a medicine médasan, a devotional divóushanal refreshment rafréshmant, a confection kanfékshan, and finally fáinali a beverage bévarij—Brewing brúing by boiling bóiling, infusion infyúzhan, percolation, and filtration filtréishan—Coffee káfi making méiking in Europe yúrap in the nineteenth náintínth century sénchari—Early árli coffee káfi making méiking in the United yunáitad States stéits—Latest léitast developments divélapmants in better bétar coffee káfi making méiking—Various vérias aspects éspekts of scientific saiantífik coffee káfi brewing brúing—Advice edváis to coffee káfi lovers lávarz on how to buy bái coffee káfi, and how to make it in perfection parfékshan Page péij 693

A COFFEE káfi CHRONOLOGY kranálaji

Giving gíving dates déits and events ivénts of historical histórikal interest íntrast in legend léjand, travel tréval, literature lítarachar, cultivation kaltivéishan, plantation plentéishan treatment trítmant, trading tréiding, and in the preparation preparéishan and use of coffee káfi from the earliest árliast time to the present prézant Page péij 725

A COFFEE káfi BIBLIOGRAPHY bibliágrafi

A list líst of references réfaransiz gathered gédhard from the principal prínsapal general jénaral and scientific saiantífik libraries láibreriz—Arranged aréinjd in alphabetic elfabétik order órdar of topics tápiks Page péij 738

INDEX índeks Page péij 769

ILLUSTRATIONS ilastréishanz

Color kálar Plates pléits

Facing féising page péij

Coffee káfi branches brénchaz, flowers fláuarz, and fruit frút (painted péintad by Blendon Campbell kémbal) Frontispiece v

Coffea arabica arébika; leaves lívz, flowers fláuarz, and fruit frút (painted péintad by M.E. Eaton ítan) 1

The coffee káfi tree trí bears bérz fruit frút, leaf líf, and blossom blásam at the same time 16

A close-up klóusáp of ripe ráip coffee káfi berries bériz 32

Coffee káfi under the Stars stárz and Stripes stráips 144

Coffee káfi scenes sínz in British brítish India índia 160

Picking píking and sacking séking coffee káfi in Brazil brazíl 176

Mild-coffee máildkáfi culture kálchar and preparation preparéishan 192

Coffee káfi scenes sínz in Java jáva 200

Coffee káfi scenes sínz in Sumatra sumátra 216

Coffee káfi preparation preparéishan in Central séntral and South sáuth America améraka 248

Typical típakal coffee káfi scenes sínz in Costa kósta Rica ríka 336

Principal prínsapal varieties varáiatiz of green-coffee grínkáfi beans bínz, natural nécharal size sáiz and color kálar 352

Coal-roasting kóul-róusting plant plént, New York yórk 408

Coffee káfi scenes sínz in the Near nír and Far fár East íst 544

Primitive prímativ transportation trenspartéishan methods méthadz, Arabia aréibia 640

Hulling coffee káfi in Aden éidan, Arabia aréibia 656

Black blék and White wáit Illustrations ilastréishanz

Page péij

Coffee káfi tree trí in flower fláuar 4

De Clieu and his coffee káfi plant plént 7

Legendary léjanderi discovery diskávari of coffee káfi drink drínk 10

Title táital page péij of Dufour's dafúr book búk 13

Frontispiece from Dufour's dafúr book búk 15

Turkish tárkish coffee káfi house, 17th century sénchari 21

Serving sárving coffee káfi to a guest gést, Arabia aréibia 23

First printed príntad reference réfarans to coffee káfi 24

An 18th-century Italian itélyan coffee káfi house 26

Nobility noubílati in an early árli Venetian vaníshan cafe kaféi 27

Goldoni in a Venetian vaníshan coffee káfi house 28

Florian's flórian famous féimas coffee káfi house 29

Title táital page péij of La Roque's róuk work 32

Coffee káfi tree trí as pictured píkchard by La Roque róuk 32

Coffee káfi branch brénch in La Roque's róuk work 33

First printed príntad reference réfarans in English ínglish 37

Reference réfarans in Sherley's shárli travels trévalz 39

References réfaransiz in Biddulph's travels trévalz 40

Mol's mól coffee káfi house at Exeter éksitar 41

Reference réfarans in Sandys' travels trévalz 42

Richter's ríktar coffee káfi house, Leipsic 46

Coffee káfi house, Germany jármani, 17th century sénchari 47

Kolschitzky in his Blue blú Bottle bátal coffee káfi house 48

First coffee káfi house in Leopoldstadt 50

Statue stéchu of Kolschitzky 51

First advertisement advártazmant for coffee káfi 55

First newspaper núzpeipar advertisement advártazmant 57

Coffee káfi house, time of Charles chárlz II 60

London lándan coffee káfi house, 17th century sénchari 61

Coffee káfi house, Queen kwín Anne's én time 62

Coffee-house káfiháus keepers kíparz' tokens tóukanz (plate pléit 1) 63

A broadside bródsaid of 1663 64

Coffee-house káfiháus keepers kíparz' tokens tóukanz (plate pléit 2) 65

A broadside bródsaid of 1667 68

A broadside bródsaid of 1670 70

A broadside bródsaid of 1672 70

A broadside bródsaid of 1674 71

White's wáit and Brooke's brúk coffee káfi houses háusaz 78

London lándan coffee-house káfiháus politicians palatíshanz 78

Great Fair fér on the frozen fróuzan Thames témz 79

Lion's láian head héd at Button's bátan 80

Trio tríou of notables nóutabalz at Button's bátan 81

Vauxhall vákshol Gardens gárdanz on a gala géla night náit 82

Rotunda routánda in Ranelagh Gardens gárdanz 83

Garraway's gérawei coffee káfi house 84

Button's bátan coffee káfi house 84

Slaughter's slótar coffee káfi house 85

Tom's tám coffee káfi house 85

Lloyd's lóid coffee káfi house 86

Dick's dík coffee káfi house 87

Grecian gríshan coffee káfi house 87

Don dán Saltero's coffee káfi house 88

British brítish coffee káfi house 88

French frénch coffee káfi house in London lándan 89

Ramponaux' Royal róial Drummer drámar cafe kaféi 90

La Foire St strít.-Germain 92

Street strít coffee káfi vender of Paris péris 92

Armenian armínian decorations dekaréishanz in Paris péris cafe kaféi 93

Corner kórnar of historic histórik Cafe kaféi de Procope 93

Cafe kaféi de Procope, Paris péris 95

Cashier's keshír desk désk in coffee káfi house, Paris péris 96

Cafe kaféi Foy fói 97

Cafe kaféi des Mille míl Colonnes 99

Cafe kaféi de Paris péris 101

Interior intíriar of a typical típakal Parisian parízhan cafe kaféi 103

Chess chés at the Cafe kaféi de la Regence 104

Types táips of colonial kalóunial coffee káfi roasters róustarz 106

Early árli family fémali coffee káfi roaster róustar 106

Historic histórik relics réliks, early árli New England íngland 107

Mayflower méiflauar "coffee káfi grinder gráindar" 108

Crown kráun coffee káfi house, Boston bástan 108

Coffee káfi devices diváisaz, Massachusetts mesachúsats colony kálani 109

Coffee káfi devices diváisaz of western wéstarn pioneers paianírz 110

Coffee káfi pots páts of colonial kalóunial days déiz 110

Green grín Dragon drégan tavern tévarn, Boston bástan 111

Metal métal coffee káfi pots páts, New York yórk colony kálani 112

Exchange ikschéinj coffee káfi house, Boston bástan 113

President-elect prézadent-ilékt Washington's wáshingtan official afíshal welcome wélkam at Merchants márchants Coffee káfi House 114

King's kíng Arms ármz coffee káfi house, New York yórk 116

Burns bárnz coffee káfi house 117

Merchants márchants coffee káfi house 119

Tontine coffee káfi house 121

Tontine building bílding of 1850 122

Niblo's Garden gárdan 122

Coffee káfi relics réliks, Dutch dách New York yórk 122

New York's yórk Vauxhall vákshol Garden gárdan of 1803 123

Tavern tévarn and grocers gróusarz' signs sáinz, old New York yórk 124

Second London lándan coffee káfi house, Philadelphia filadélfia 127

Selling séling slaves sléivz, old London lándan coffee káfi house 128

City síti tavern tévarn, Philadelphia filadélfia 129

Coffee-house káfiháus scene sín in "Hamilton hémaltan" 130

Coffee káfi tree trí, flowers fláuarz and fruit frút 132

Germination jarmanéishan of the coffee káfi plant plént 133

Brazil brazíl coffee káfi plantation plentéishan in flower fláuar 134

Coffea arabica arébika, Porto pórtou Rico ríkou 135

Coffea arabica arébika, flower fláuar and fruit frút, Costa kósta Rica ríka 135

Young yáng Coffea arabica arébika, Kona kóuna, Hawaii hawáii 136

Survivors sarváivarz of first Liberian laibírian trees tríz in Java jáva 136

Coffea arabica arébika in flower fláuar, Java jáva 137

Liberian laibírian coffee káfi tree trí, Lamoa, P.I. 138

Coffea congensis, 2-1/2 years old 138

Flowering fláuaring of 5-year-old Coffea excelsa 139

Branches brénchaz of Coffea excelsa 140

Coffea stenophylla 140

Near nír view vyú of Coffea arabica arébika berries bériz 141

Wild wáild caffein-free coffee káfi tree trí 142

Coffee káfi bean bín characteristics keraktarístiks 142

Coffea arabica arébika berries bériz 143

Robusta rabásta coffee káfi in flower fláuar 144

One-year-old wán-yír-óuld robusta rabásta estate istéit 145

Coffea Quillou flowers fláuarz 146

Quillou coffee káfi tree trí in blossom blásam 147

Coffea Ugandae 148

Coffea arabica arébika under the microscope máikraskoup 149

Cross-section krós-sékshan of coffee káfi bean bín 150

Cross-section krós-sékshan of hull hál and bean bín 150

Epicarp and pericarp under microscope máikraskoup 151

Endocarp and endosperm éndasparm under microscope máikraskoup 152

Spermoderm under microscope máikraskoup 152

Tissues tísyuz of embryo émbriou under microscope máikraskoup 152

Coffee-leaf káfilíf disease dizíz under microscope máikraskoup 153

Green grín and roasted róustad coffee káfi under microscope máikraskoup 153

Green grín and roasted róustad Bogota bougatá under microscope máikraskoup 154

Cross-section krós-sékshan of endosperm éndasparm 156

Portion pórshan of the investing invésting membrane mémbrein 157

Structure strákchar of the green grín bean bín 157

Ground gráund coffee káfi under microscope máikraskoup 167

Coffee káfi tree trí in bearing béring, Lamoa, P.I. 196

Early árli coffee káfi implements ímplamants 198

Cross-section krós-sékshan of mountain máuntan slope slóup, Yemen yéman 198

First steps stéps in coffee-growing káfi-gróuing 199

Coffee káfi nursery nársari, Guatemala gwatamála 200

Coffee káfi under shade shéid, Porto pórtou Rico ríkou 201

Boekit Gompong estate istéit, Sumatra sumátra 202

Estate istéit in Antioquia, Colombia kalámbia 203

Weeding wíding and harrowing hérouing, Sao sáu Paulo pólou 204

Fazenda Dumont dumánt, Sao sáu Paulo pólou 205

Fazenda Guatapara, Sao sáu Paulo pólou 206

Picking píking coffee káfi, Sao sáu Paulo pólou 207

Intensive inténsiv cultivation kaltivéishan, Sao sáu Paulo pólou 207

Private práivat railroad réilroud, Sao sáu Paulo pólou 208

Coffee káfi culture kálchar in Sao sáu Paulo pólou 209

Heavily hévali laden léidan coffee káfi tree trí, Bogota bougatá 210

Picking píking coffee káfi, Bogota bougatá 211

Altamira altamíra Hacienda hesiénda, Venezuela venizwéila 212

Carmen kárman Hacienda hesiénda, Venezuela venizwéila 213

Heavy hévi fruiting frúting, Coffea robusta rabásta, Java jáva 214

Road róud through coffee káfi estate istéit, Java jáva 215

Native néitiv picking píking coffee káfi, Sumatra sumátra 216

Administrator's admínastreitar bungalow bángalou, Java jáva 216

Administrator's admínastreitar bungalow bángalou, Sumatra sumátra 217

Coffee káfi culture kálchar in Guatemala gwatamála 218

Indians índianz picking píking coffee káfi, Guatemala gwatamála 219

Bungalow bángalou, coffee káfi estate istéit, Guatemala gwatamála 220

Thirty-year-old thárdi-yír-óuld coffee káfi trees tríz, Mexico méksakou 221

Mexican méksakan coffee káfi picker píkar 222

Receiving rasíving coffee káfi, Mexico méksakou 223

Heavily hévali laden léidan coffee káfi tree trí, Porto pórtou Rico ríkou 224

Coffee káfi cultivation kaltivéishan, Costa kósta Rica ríka 225

Picking píking Costa kósta Rica ríka coffee káfi 226

Mountain máuntan coffee káfi estate istéit, Costa kósta Rica ríka 226

Mysore coffee káfi estate istéit 227

Coffee káfi growing gróuing under shade shéid, India índia 228

Coffee káfi estate istéit at Harar 229

Wild wáild coffee káfi near nír Adis Abeba 231

Mocha móuka coffee káfi growing gróuing on terraces térasaz 232

Picking píking Blue blú Mountain máuntan berries bériz, Jamaica jaméika 233

Coffee káfi pickers píkarz, Guadeloupe gwadalúp 234

Coffee káfi in blossom blásam, Panama pénama 235

Robusta rabásta coffee káfi, Cochin-China kóuchin-cháina 237

Bourbon bárban trees tríz, French frénch Indo-China índou-cháina 238

Picking píking coffee káfi in Queensland kwínzlend 239

Coffee káfi in bloom blúm, Kona kóuna, Hawaii hawáii 240

Coffee káfi at Hamakua, Hawaii hawáii 241

Coffee káfi trees tríz, South sáuth Kona kóuna, Hawaii hawáii 242

Plantation plentéishan near nír Sagada, P.I. 243

Coffee káfi preparation preparéishan, Sao sáu Paulo pólou 244

Walker's wókar original aríjanal disk dísk pulper 246

Early árli English ínglish coffee káfi peeler pílar 246

Group of English ínglish cylinder sílandar pulpers 247

Copper kápar covers kávarz for pulper cylinders sílandarz 248

Granada granáda unpulped coffee káfi separator 249

Hand-power héndpáuar double-disk dábaldísk pulper 249

Tandem téndam coffee káfi pulper 250

Horizontal horazántal coffee káfi washer wáshar 251

Vertical vártikal coffee káfi washer wáshar 251

Coban pulper, Venezuela venizwéila 252

Niagara naiégra power páuar coffee káfi huller 252

British brítish and American amérakan coffee káfi driers 253

American amérakan Guardiola gardióula drier dráiar 254

Smout peeler pílar and polisher 254

Smout peeler pílar and polisher, exposed ikspóuzd 255

O'Krassa's coffee káfi drier dráiar 255

Six síks well-known wélnóun hullers and separators 256

El él Monarca coffee káfi classifier 257

Hydro-electric háidrou-iléktrik installation instaléishan, Guatemala gwatamála 258

Preparing pripéring Brazil brazíl coffee káfi for market márkat 259

Working wárking coffee káfi on the drying dráiing flats fléts 260

Fermenting farménting and washing wáshing tanks ténks, Sao sáu Paulo pólou 260

Drying dráiing grounds gráundz, Fazenda Schmidt shmít 261

Preparing pripéring Colombian kalámbian coffee káfi for market márkat 262

Old-fashioned óuld-féshand ox-power ákspáuar huller 263

Street-car strítkár coffee káfi transport trenspórt, Orizaba 264

Coffee káfi on drying dráiing floors flórz, Porto pórtou Rico ríkou 264

Sun-drying sán-dráiing coffee káfi 265

Drying dráiing patio pétiou, Costa kósta Rica ríka 266

Early árli Guardiola gardióula steam stím drier dráiar 266

Indian índian women wíman cleaning klíning Mocha móuka coffee káfi 267

Cleaning-and-grading klíning-and-gréiding machinery mashínari, Aden éidan 268

Drying dráiing coffee káfi at Harar 269

Preparing pripéring Java jáva coffee káfi for market márkat 270

Coffee káfi transport trenspórt in Java jáva 271

Meeting míting of Amsterdam émstardem coffee káfi brokers bróukarz, 1820 291

Bill bíl of public páblik sale séil of coffee káfi, 1790 292

Last sample sémpal before export éksport, Santos séntous 304

Stamping stémping bags bégz for export éksport 304

Preparing pripéring Brazil brazíl coffee káfi for export éksport 305

Grading gréiding coffee káfi at Santos séntous 306

The test tést by the cups káps, Santos séntous 306

New York yórk importers impórtarz' warehouse wérhaus, Santos séntous 307

Pack-mule pékmyúl transport trenspórt in Venezuela venizwéila 308

Coffee-carrying káfi-kériing cart kárt, Guatemala gwatamála 308

Pack-oxen pékáksan fording stream strím, Colombia kalámbia 308

Coffee káfi transport trenspórt, Mexico méksakou and South sáuth America améraka 309

Donkey dánki coffee-transport káfi-trenspórt at Harar 310

Coffee káfi camels kémalz at Harar 310

Selling séling coffee káfi by tapping téping hands héndz, Aden éidan 310

Packing péking and transporting trenspórting coffee káfi, Aden éidan 311

Coffee káfi camel kémal train tréin at Hodeida 312

Methods méthadz of loading lóuding coffee káfi, Santos séntous 313

Coffee káfi freighter fréitar, Cauca River rívar, Colombia kalámbia 314

Coffee káfi steamers stímarz on the Magdalena megdalína 314

Loading lóuding heavy hévi cargo kárgou on Santa sénta Cecilia sisílya 315

Unloading anlóuding Java jáva coffee káfi from sailing séiling vessel vésal 317

Receiving rasíving piers pírz for coffee káfi, New York yórk 318

Unloading anlóuding coffee káfi, covered kávard pier pír, New York yórk 319

Receiving rasíving and storing stóring coffee káfi, New York yórk 320

Tester téstar at work, Bush búsh Terminal tármanal, New York yórk 321

Loading lóuding lighters láitarz, Bush búsh Docks dáks, Brooklyn brúklan 321

New Terminal tármanal system on Staten stétan Island áiland 322

Motor móutar tractor tréktar, Bush búsh piers pírz 322

Unloading anlóuding with modern mádarn conveyor kanvéiar 323

Coffee káfi handling héndling, New Orleans órlianz piers pírz 324

Coffee káfi in steel-covered stíl-kávard sheds shédz, New Orleans órlianz 325

Unloading anlóuding and storing stóring coffee káfi, San sén Francisco frensískou 326

Modern mádarn device diváis for handling héndling green grín coffee káfi 327

Handling héndling green grín coffee káfi at European yurapían ports pórts 328

New York yórk Coffee káfi and Sugar shúgar Exchange ikschéinj 329

Coffee káfi section sékshan, Coffee káfi and Sugar shúgar Exchange ikschéinj 330

Blackboards blékbordz, Coffee káfi Exchange ikschéinj 331

"Coffee káfi afloat aflóut" blackboard blékbord 332

Well known nóun green-coffee grínkáfi marks márks 339

Bourbon-Santos bárban-séntous beans bínz, roasted róustad 343

Flat flét and Bourbon-Santos bárban-séntous beans bínz, roasted róustad 343

Rio ríou beans bínz, roasted róustad 343

Mexican méksakan beans bínz, roasted róustad 347

Guatemala gwatamála beans bínz, roasted róustad 347

Bogota bougatá (Colombia kalámbia) beans bínz, roasted róustad 348

Maracaibo beans bínz, roasted róustad 349

Mocha móuka beans bínz, roasted róustad 351

Washed wásht Java jáva beans bínz, roasted róustad 353

Sample-roasting sémpal-róusting and cup-testing káp-tésting outfit áutfit 357

Modern mádarn gas gés coffee-roasting káfi-róusting plant plént 380

Sixteen-cylinder sikstín-sílandar coal kóul roasting róusting plant plént 382

Green-coffee grínkáfi separating sépareiting and milling míling machines mashínz 384

English ínglish gas gés coffee-roasting káfi-róusting plant plént 385

German járman gas gés coffee-roasting káfi-róusting plant plént 386

French frénch gas gés coffee-roasting káfi-róusting plant plént 387

Jumbo jámbou coffee káfi roaster róustar, Arbuckle árbakal plant plént 388

Roasting róusting plant plént of Reid ríd, Murdoch márdak & Co kóu. 389

Complete kamplít gas gés coffee-plant káfiplént installation instaléishan 390

Burns bárnz Jubilee júbali gas gés roaster róustar 391

Burns bárnz coal kóul roaster róustar 392

Open óupan perforated párfareitad cylinder sílandar with flexible fléksabal back head héd 392

Trying tráiing the roast róust 394

Monitor mánatar gas gés roaster róustar 394

A group of roasting-room róusting-rúm accessories eksésariz 394

Dumping dámping the roast róust 395

A four-bag fórbég coffee káfi finisher fínishar 396

Burns bárnz sample-coffee sémpal-káfi roaster róustar 396

Lambert lémbart coal kóul coffee-roasting káfi-róusting outfit áutfit 397

Coles kóulz No. 22 grinding gráinding mill míl 398

Monitor mánatar coffee-granulating machine mashín 398

Challenge chélanj pulverizer 398

Burns bárnz No. 12 grinding gráinding mill míl 399

Monitor mánatar steel-cut stílkát grinder gráindar, separator, etc etsétara 399

Johnson jánsan carton-filling kártan-fíling, weighing wéiing, and sealing síling machine mashín 400

Ideal aidíl steel-cut stílkát mill míl 400

Smyser smáisar package-making pékaj-méiking and filling fíling machine mashín 401

Automatic otamétik coffee-packing káfi-péking machine mashín 402

Complete kamplít coffee-cartoning outfit áutfit 403

Automatic otamétik coffee-weighing káfi-wéiing machines mashínz 404

Units yúnats in manufacture menyafékchar of soluble sályabal coffee káfi 405

Types táips of coffee káfi containers kantéinarz 411

Fresh-roasted-coffee frésh-róustad-káfi idea aidía in retailing ríteiling 414

Premium prímiam tea and coffee káfi dealer's dílar display displéi 416

Chain-store chéinstór interior intíriar 417

Familiar famílyar A & P store stór front fránt 418

Specialist spéshalast idea aidía in coffee káfi merchandising márchandaizing 419

Monitor mánatar gas gés roaster róustar, cooler kúlar, and stoner stóunar 420

Royal róial gas gés coffee káfi roaster róustar for retailers ríteilarz 420

Burns bárnz half-bag héfbég roaster róustar, cooler kúlar, and stoner stóunar 421

Lambert lémbart Jr. roasting róusting outfit áutfit for retailers ríteilarz 421

Faulder and Simplex símpleks gas gés roasters róustarz 422

Coffee káfi roasters róustarz used in Paris péris shops sháps 423

Small German járman roasters róustarz 424

Popular pápyalar French frénch retail ríteil roaster róustar 424

Uno anóu cabinet kébanat gas gés roaster róustar and cooler kúlar 424

Educational ejakéishanal window wíndou exhibit igzíbit 425

Better-class bétarklés American amérakan grocery gróusari, interior intíriar 426

Prize-winning práiz-wíning window wíndou display displéi 427

Americanized amérikanaizd English ínglish grocer's gróusar shop sháp 429

Famous féimas package pékaj coffees kófiz 430

First coffee káfi advertisement advártazmant in U.S. 433

Coffee káfi advertisement advártazmant of 1790 434

First colored kálard handbill héndbil for package pékaj coffee káfi 435

Reverse rivárs side sáid of colored kálard handbill héndbil 435

St strít. Louis lúis handbill héndbil of 1854 436

Advertising-card édvartaizing-kárd copy kápi, 1873 437

Handbill héndbil copy kápi of the seventies sévantiz 437

Box-end báksénd sticker stíkar, 1833 438

Chase chéis & Sanborn sénborn advertisement advártazmant, 1888 438

A Goldberg góuldbarg cartoon kartún, 1910 439

Copy kápi used by Chase chéis & Sanborn sénborn, 1900 439

An effective iféktiv cut-out kátáut 442

How coffee káfi is advertised édvartaizd to the trade tréid 443

Joint jóint Coffee káfi Trade tréid Publicity pablísati Committee kamíti 447

Magazine mégazin and newspaper núzpeipar copy kápi, 1919 449

Copy kápi that stressed strést helpfulness of coffee káfi, 1919-20 450

Joint jóint Committee's kamíti house organ órgan 451

Introductory intradáktari medical-journal médakal-járnal copy kápi 451

Telling téling the doctors dáktarz the truth trúth, 1920 452

Joint jóint Committee's kamíti attractive atréktiv booklets búklats 453

More medical médakal journal járnal copy kápi, 1920 454

Magazine mégazin and newspaper núzpeipar copy kápi, 1921 455

Educating éjakeiting the doctor dáktar, 1922 456

Magazine mégazin and newspaper núzpeipar copy kápi, 1922 457

Specimen spésaman of early árli Yuban copy kápi 459

Historical histórikal association asousiéishan in advertising édvartaizing 459

Package pékaj coffee káfi advertising édvartaizing in 1922 460

The social distinction distínkshan argument árgyamant 461

Drawing dróing upon apán history hístari for atmosphere étmasfir 461

An impressive imprésiv electric iléktrik sign sáin, Chicago shakágou 462

How coffee káfi is advertised édvartaizd outdoors áutdórz 463

Attractive atréktiv car kár cards kárdz, spring spríng of 1922 464

Effective iféktiv iced-coffee áistkáfi copy kápi 465

European yurapían advertising édvartaizing novelty návalti, New York yórk 465

Coenties Slip slíp, in days déiz of sailing séiling vessels vésalz 466

First U.S. coffee-grinder káfi-gráindar patent pétant 469

Carter's kártar Pull-out púláut roaster róustar patent pétant 469

First registered réjistard trade tréid mark márk for coffee káfi 470

Original aríjanal Arbuckle árbakal coffee káfi packages pékajaz 471

Merchants márchants coffee káfi house tablet téblat 473

Departed dipártad dominant dámanant figures fígyarz in New York yórk green grín coffee káfi trade tréid 476

"Their association asousiéishan with New York yórk green grín coffee káfi trade tréid dates déits back nearly nírli fifty fífti years" 477

Green grín coffee káfi trade-builders tréid-bíldarz who have passed pést on 478

"Their race réis is run rán, their course kórs is done dán" 479

112 Front fránt Street strít, New York yórk, 1879 480

At 87 Wall wól Street strít, New York yórk, years ago agóu 480

Wall wól and Front fránt Streets stríts, New York yórk, 1922 481

Front fránt Street strít, New York yórk, 1922 483

In the New Orleans órlianz coffee káfi district dístrikt 486

Green grín coffee káfi district dístrikt, New Orleans órlianz 487

California kelafórnya Street strít, San sén Francisco frensískou 488

San sén Francisco's frensískou coffee káfi district dístrikt 489

Pioneer paianír coffee káfi roasters róustarz, New York yórk City síti 493

Oldtime New York yórk coffee káfi roasters róustarz 495

Pioneer paianír coffee káfi roasters róustarz of the North nórth and East íst, U.S. 500

Pioneer paianír coffee káfi roasters róustarz of the South sáuth and West wést, U.S. 504

Ground gráund coffee káfi price práis list líst of 1862 507

Organization organazéishan convention kanvénshan, N.C.R.A., 1911 510

Former fórmar presidents prézadents, N.C.R.A. 512

Earliest árliast coffee káfi manuscript ményaskript 540

Song sóng from "The Coffee káfi House" 555

Dr dráiv. Johnson's jánsan seat sít, the Cheshire chéshar Cheese chíz 567

Original aríjanal coffee káfi room rúm, old Cock kák Tavern tévarn 568

Morning mórning gossip gásap in the coffee káfi room rúm 569

"His Warmest wórmast Welcome wélkam at an Inn ín" 571

Alexander elagzéndar Pope póup at Button's bátan, 1730 577

Dutch dách coffee káfi house, 1650 (by Van vén Ostade) 586

White's wáit coffee káfi house, 1733 (by Hogarth hóugarth) 588

Tom tám King's kíng, 1738 (by Hogarth hóugarth) 589

Petit péti Dejeuner (by Boucher búsha) 590

Coffee káfi service sárvas in the home of Madame médam de Pompadour pámpador (by Van vén Loo) 590

Madame médam Du Barry béri (by Decreuse) 591

Coffee káfi house at Cairo káirou (by Gerome géram) 592

Kaffeebesuch (by Philippi filípi) 593

Coffee káfi comes kámz to the aid éid of the Muse myúz (by Ruffio) 593

Mad méd dog dóg in a coffee káfi house (by Rowlandson) 594

Napoleon napóulian and the Cure kyúr (by Charlet chárlit) 595

Coffee káfi, a chanson (music myúzik by Colet) 596

Statue stéchu of Kolschitzky 597

Betty's béti Aria ária, Bach's bák coffee káfi cantata kentáta 598

Cafe kaféi Pedrocchi, Padua pédyua 599

Coffee káfi grinder gráindar set with jewels júalz 600

Italian itélyan wrought-iron rótáiarn coffee káfi roaster róustar 600

Seventeenth-century sévantínth-sénchari tea and coffee káfi pots páts 601

Lantern léntarn coffee káfi pot pát, 1692 602

Folkingham pot pát, 1715-16 602

Wastell pot pát, 1720-21 603

Dish dísh of coffee-boy káfibói design dizáin, 1692 603

Chinese chainíz porcelain pórsalan coffee káfi pot pát 604

Silver sílvar coffee káfi pots páts, early árli 18th century sénchari 604

Silver sílvar coffee káfi pots páts, 18th century sénchari 605

Pottery pátari and porcelain pórsalan pots páts 606

Silver sílvar coffee káfi pots páts, late léit 18th century sénchari 607

Porcelain pórsalan pots páts, Metropolitan metrapálatan Museum myuzíam 608

Vienna viéna coffee káfi pot pát, 1830 609

Spanish spénish coffee káfi pot pát, 18th century sénchari 609

Silver sílvar coffee káfi pots páts in American amérakan collections kalékshanz 610

Coffee káfi pot pát by Win wín. Shaw shó and Wm wílyam. Priest príst 611

Pot pát of Sheffield shéfild plate pléit, 18th century sénchari 611

Pot pát by Ephraim ífram Brasher bréshar 611

French frénch silver sílvar coffee káfi pot pát 612

Green grín Dragon drégan tavern tévarn coffee káfi urn árn 612

Coffee káfi pots páts by American amérakan silversmiths 613

Twentieth-century twéntiath-sénchari American amérakan coffee káfi service sárvas 613

Turkish tárkish coffee káfi set, Peter pítar collection kalékshan 614

Oldest óuldast coffee káfi grinder gráindar 616

Grain gréin mill míl used by Greeks gríks and Romans róumanz 616

First coffee káfi roaster róustar 616

First cylinder sílandar roaster róustar, 1650 616

Historical histórikal relics réliks, U.S. National néshanal Museum myuzíam 617

Turkish tárkish coffee káfi mill míl 618

Early árli French frénch wall wól and table téibal grinders gráindarz 618

Bronze bránz and brass brés mortars mórtarz, 17th century sénchari 619

Early árli American amérakan coffee káfi roasters róustarz 619

Roaster róustar with three-sided thrí-sáidad hood húd 620

Roasting róusting, making méiking, and serving sárving devices diváisaz, 17th century sénchari 620

English ínglish and French frénch coffee káfi grinders gráindarz 621

Eighteenth-century eitínth-sénchari roaster róustar 621

Original aríjanal French frénch drip dríp pot pát 621

Belgian béljan, Russian ráshan, and French frénch pewter pyútar pots páts 622

17th and 18th century sénchari pewter pyútar pots páts 623

Count káunt Rumford's rámfard percolator párkaleitar 623

Drawings dróingz of early árli French frénch coffee káfi makers méikarz 624

Early árli French frénch filtration filtréishan devices diváisaz 624

Early árli American amérakan coffee-maker káfi-méikar patents pétants 625

French frénch coffee káfi makers méikarz, 19th century sénchari 625

First English ínglish commercial kamárshal roaster róustar patent pétant 626

Early árli French frénch coffee-roasting káfi-róusting machines mashínz 627

Battery bétari of Carter kártar pull-out púláut machines mashínz 628

Early árli English ínglish and American amérakan roasters róustarz 630

Early árli Foreign fóran and American amérakan coffee-making káfi-méiking devices diváisaz 632

Dakin déikin roasting róusting machine mashín of 1848 633

Globe glóub stove stóuv roaster róustar of 1860 634

Hyde's háid combined kambáind roaster róustar and stove stóuv 634

Original aríjanal Burns bárnz roaster róustar, 1864 635

Burns bárnz granulating mill míl, 1872-74 636

Napier's néipiar vacuum vékyum machine mashín 637

German járman gas gés and coal kóul roasting róusting machines mashínz 638

Other German járman coffee káfi roasters róustarz 639

Original aríjanal Enterprise éntarpraiz mill míl 640

Max méks Thurmer's quick kwík gas gés roaster róustar 640

An English ínglish gas gés coffee-roasting káfi-róusting plant plént 641

French frénch globular glábyalar roaster róustar 642

Sirocco machine mashín (French frénch) 642

English ínglish roasting róusting and grinding gráinding equipment ikwípmant 643

Magic méjik gas gés machine mashín (French frénch) 644

Burns bárnz Jubilee júbali gas gés machine mashín 644

Double dábal gas gés roasting róusting outfit áutfit (French frénch) 645

Lambert's lémbart Victory víktari gas gés machine mashín 646

One of the first electric iléktrik mills mílz 647

English ínglish electric-fuel iléktrik-fyúal roaster róustar 648

Ben bén Franklin frénklin electric iléktrik coffee káfi roaster róustar 648

Enterprise éntarpraiz hand hénd store stór mill míl 649

Latest léitast types táips electric iléktrik store stór mills mílz 650

Italian itélyan rapid répad coffee-making káfi-méiking machines mashínz 651

Working wárking of Italian itélyan rapid répad machines mashínz 652

La Victoria viktória Arduino Mignonne 652

N.C.R.A. Home coffee káfi mill míl 653

Manthey-Zorn ménthi-zórn rapid répad infuser and dispenser dispénsar 653

Tricolette, single-cup síngalkáp filter fíltar device diváis 654

Moorish múrish coffee káfi house in Algiers eljírz 656

Coffee káfi house in Cairo káirou 656

Coffee káfi service sárvas in Cairo káirou barber bárbar shop sháp 657

Coffee-laden káfi-léidan camels kémalz, Arabia aréibia 658

Arabian aréibian coffee káfi house 658

Mahommedan brewing brúing coffee káfi for guest gést 659

Native néitiv cafe kaféi, Harar 661

Early árli coffee káfi, tea, and chocolate chóklat service sárvas 661

Nubian nyúbian slave sléiv girl gárl with coffee káfi service sárvas 662

Persian párzhan coffee káfi service sárvas, 1737 663

In a Turkish tárkish coffee káfi house 664

Roasting róusting coffee káfi outside áutsáid a Turkish tárkish cafe kaféi 664

Turkish tárkish caffinet, early árli 19th century sénchari 665

Coffee-making káfi-méiking in Turkey tárki 666

Street strít coffee káfi vender in the Levant lavént 666

A coffee káfi house in Syria síria 667

Cafetan—garb gárb of oriental oriéntal cafe-keeper kaféi-kípar 668

Street strít coffee káfi service sárvas in Constantinople kanstentanóupal 668

Riverside rívarsaid cafe kaféi in Damascus daméskas 669

Coffee káfi al él fresco fréskou in Jerusalem jarúsalam 671

Cafe kaféi Schrangl, Vienna viéna 672

Favorite féivarit English ínglish way of making méiking coffee káfi 673

A cafe kaféi of Ye Mecca méka Company, London lándan 673

Groom's grúm coffee káfi house, London lándan 674

Cafe kaféi Monico mouníkou, Piccadilly píkadili Circus sárkas, London lándan 674

Gatti's géti, The Strand strénd, London lándan 675

Tea lounge láunj, Hotel houtél Savoy savói, London lándan 675

Two popular pápyalar places pléisaz for coffee káfi in London lándan 676

Temple témpal Bar bár restaurant réstarant, London lándan 677

Tea balcony bélkani, Hotel houtél Cecil sísal, London lándan 677

One of Slater's sléitar chain-shops chéin-sháps, London lándan 677

St strít. James's jéimz restaurant réstarant, Picadilly, London lándan 678

An A.B.C. shop sháp, London lándan 678

Halt hólt of caravaners at a serai, Bulgaria balgéria 678

Cafe kaféi de la Paix, Paris péris 679

Sidewalk sáidwok annex éneks, Cafe kaféi de la Paix 680

Cafe kaféi de la Regence, Paris péris 681

Cafe kaféi de la Regence in 1922 682

One of the Biard cafes keféiz, Paris péris 683

Restaurant réstarant Procope, 1922 683

Morning mórning coffee káfi at a Boulevard búlavard cafe kaféi 684

Cafe kaféi Bauer báuar, Unter den dén Linden líndan, Berlin barlín 684

Cafe kaféi Bauer báuar, exterior ikstíriar 685

Kranzler's krénzlar Unter den dén Linden líndan, Berlin barlín 685

Swedish swídish coffee káfi boilers bóilarz 687

Sidewalk sáidwok cafe kaféi, Lisbon lízban 687

Coffee káfi rooms rúmz replacing ripléising hotel houtél bars bárz, U.S. 688

Britannia briténia coffee káfi pot pát—a Lincoln línkan relic rélik 690

Coffee káfi service sárvas, Hotel houtél Astor éstar, New York yórk 691

Early árli coffee-making káfi-méiking in Persia párzha 694

Napier néipiar vacuum vékyum coffee káfi maker méikar 700

Napier-List néipiar-líst steam stím coffee káfi machine mashín 700

Finley fínli Acker's ékar filter-paper fíltar-péipar coffee káfi pot pát 700

Kin-Hee kínhí pot pát in operation aparéishan 701

Tricolator in operation aparéishan 701

King kíng percolator párkaleitar 701

Three American amérakan coffee-making káfi-méiking machines mashínz in operation aparéishan 702

How the Tru-Bru pot pát operates ápareits 702

Coffee-making káfi-méiking devices diváisaz used in U.S. 703

English ínglish hotel houtél coffee-making káfi-méiking machines mashínz 706

Well-known wélnóun makes méiks of large lárj coffee káfi urns 707

Popular pápyalar German járman drip dríp pot pát 708

Section sékshan of roasted róustad bean bín, magnified mégnafaid 719

Cross-section krós-sékshan of roasted róustad bean bín, magnified mégnafaid 720

Coarse kórs grind gráind under the microscope máikraskoup 720

Medium mídiam grind gráind under the microscope máikraskoup 721

Fine-meal fáinmíl grind gráind under the microscope máikraskoup 721

Portraits pórtrats

Ach, F.J. 447, 512

Akers éikarz, Fred fréd 495

Ames éimz, Allan élan P. 447

Arbuckle árbakal, John ján 523

Arnold árnald, Benjamin bénjaman Greene grín 476, 517

Arnold árnald, F.B. 476

Bayne béin, William wílyam 479

Bayne béin, William wílyam, Jr. 447

Beard bírd, Eli ílai 493

Beard bírd, Samuel sémyul 493

Bennett bénat, William wílyam H. 479

Bickford bíkfard, C.E. 478

Boardman bórdman, Thomas támas J. 500

Boardman bórdman, William wílyam 500

Brand brénd, Carl kárl W. 512

Brandenstein bréndenstain, M.J. 504

Burns bárnz, Jabez 527

Canby kénbi, Edward édward 500

Casanas, Ben bén C. 512

Cauchois. F.A. 493

Chase chéis, Caleb kéilab 500

Cheek chík, J.O. 504, 515

Closset, Joseph jóusaf 504

Coste kóust, Felix fíliks 447

Crossman krósman, Geo jíou. W. 479

Devers dévarz, A.H. 504

Dwinell dwínal, James jéimz F. 500

Eppens, Fred fréd 495

Eppens, Julius júlyas A. 495, 497

Eppens, W.H. 493, 495

Evans évanz, David déivid G. 504

Fischer físhar, Benedickt 493

Flint flínt, J.G. 500

Folger fóuljar, J.A., Jr. 504

Folger fóuljar, J.A., Sr sínyar. 504

Forbes fórbz, A.E. 504

Forbes fórbz, Jas jéimz. H. 504

Geiger gáigar, Frank frénk J. 500

Gillies gíliz, Jas jéimz. W. 493

Gillies gíliz, Wright ráit 493

Grossman gróusman, William wílyam 500

Harrison hérisan, D.Y. 500

Harrison hérisan, W.H. 500

Haulenbeek, Peter pítar 493

Hayward héiward, Martin mártan 500

Heekin híkin, James jéimz 500

Jones jóunz, W.T. 504

Kimball kímbal, O.G. 478

Kinsella kinséla, W.J. 504

Kirkland kárkland, Alexander elagzéndar 495

Kolschitzky, Franz frénz George jórj 50

McLaughlin magláklan, W.F. 500

Mahood máhud, Samuel sémyul 500

Mayo méiou, Henry hénri 495

Meehan mían, P.C. 477

Menezes meinéizes, Th tíéich. Langgaard de 446

Meyer máiar, Robert rábart 511

Peck pék, Edwin édwan H. 477

Phyfe, Jas jéimz. W. 478

Pierce pírs, O.W., Sr sínyar. 500

Pupke, John ján F. 495

Purcell parsél, Joseph jóusaf 476

Reid ríd, Fred fréd 495

Reid ríd, Thomas támas 493, 495

Roome rúm, Col. William wílyam P. 499

Russell rásal, James jéimz C. 478

Sanborn sénborn, James jéimz S. 500

Schilling shíling, A. 504

Schotten, Julius júlyas J. 504, 512

Schotten, William wílyam 504

Seelye sílai, Frank frénk R. 512

Sielcken, Hermann hárman 476, 519

Simmonds símandz, H. 477

Sinnot, J.B. 504

Smith smíth, L.B. 493

Smith smíth, M.E. 504

Sprague spréig, Albert élbart A. 500

Stephens stívanz, Henry hénri A. 500

Stoffregen stáfrigan, Charles chárlz 504

Stoffregen stáfrigan, C.H. 447

Taylor téilar, James jéimz H. 477

Thomson támsan, A.M. 500

Van vén Loan lóun, Thomas támas 498

Weir wír, Ross rás W. 447, 512

Westfeldt, George jórj 479

Widlar, Francis frénsas 500

Wilde wáild, Samuel sémyul 493

Withington wíthingtan, Elijah eláija 493

Woolson wúlsan, Alvin élvin M. 500

Wright ráit, George jórj C. 500

Wright ráit, George jórj S. 447

Young yáng, Samuel sémyul 500

Zinsmeister zínsmaistar, J. 504

Maps méps, Charts chárts, and Diagrams dáiagremz

Map mép of London lándan coffee-house káfiháus district dístrikt, 1748 76

Formula fórmyala for Caffein 160

Commercial kamárshal coffee káfi chart chárt 191

Eiffel áifal and Woolworth wúlwarth towers táuarz in coffee káfi 272

World's coffee káfi cup káp and largest lárjast ship shíp 275

Coffee káfi exports éksports, 1850-1920 277

Coffee káfi exports éksports, 1916-1920 277

Brazil brazíl coffee káfi exports éksports, 1850-1920 278

World's coffee káfi consumption kansámpshan, 1850 286

Coffee káfi imports impórts, 1916-1920 286

World trend trénd of consumption kansámpshan of tea and coffee káfi, 1860-1920 288

Coffee káfi map mép of World (folded fóuldad insert insárt) facing féising 288

Pre-war príwór annual ényual average évarij production pradákshan of coffee káfi by continents kántanants 294

Pre-war príwór annual ényual average évarij production pradákshan of coffee káfi by countries kántriz 294

Pre-war príwór average évarij annual ényual imports impórts of coffee káfi into U.S. by continents kántanants 295

Pre-war príwór average évarij annual ényual imports impórts of coffee káfi into U.S. by countries kántriz 295

Pre-war príwór coffee-imports káfi-impórts chart chárt 297

Pre-war príwór consumption kansámpshan and price práis chart chárt 297

Coffee káfi map mép, Brazil brazíl 342

Coffee káfi map mép, Sao sáu Paulo pólou, Minas mínas, and Rio ríou 344

Mild-coffee máildkáfi map mép, 1 346

Coffee káfi map mép, Africa éfraka and Arabia aréibia 352

Mild-coffee máildkáfi map mép, 2 354

Complete kamplít reference réfarans table téibal (21 pp.) 358

Plan plén of milling-machine míling-mashín connections kanékshanz 381

Plan plén of green-coffee-mixer grín-káfi-míksar connections kanékshanz 383

Layout léiaut for coffee káfi and tea department dipártmant 418

Chart chárt, advertising édvartaizing of coffee káfi and coffee káfi substitutes sábstatuts, 1911-20 440

Charts chárts, per pár capita képita consumption kansámpshan of coffee káfi, and coffee káfi and substitute sábstatut advertising édvartaizing 441

Chart chárt, plan plén of advertising édvartaizing campaign kempéin 448

Chart chárt, private-brand práivat-brénd advertising édvartaizing, 1921 458

A COFFEE káfi THESAURUS thasóras

Encomiums and descriptive diskríptiv phrases fréizaz applied apláid to the plant plént, the berry béri, and the beverage bévarij

The Plant plént

The precious préshas plant plént This friendly fréndli plant plént Mocha's móuka happy hépi tree trí The gift gíft of Heaven hévan The plant plént with the jessamine-like jésamin-láik flowers fláuarz The most exquisite ékskwazat perfume parfyúm of Araby the blest blést Given to the human hyúman race réis by the gift gíft of the Gods gádz

The Berry béri

The magic méjik bean bín The divine diváin fruit frút Fragrant fréigrant berries bériz Rich rích, royal róial berry béri Voluptuous valápchawas berry béri The precious préshas berry béri The healthful hélthfal bean bín The Heavenly hévanli berry béri The marvelous márvalas berry béri This all-healing ólhíling berry béri Yemen's yéman fragrant fréigrant berry béri The little aromatic eramétik berry béri Little brown bráun Arabian aréibian berry béri Thought-inspiring thót-inspáiring bean bín of Arabia aréibia The smoking smóuking, ardent árdant beans bínz Aleppo sends séndz That wild wáild fruit frút which gives gívz so beloved bilávd a drink drínk

The Beverage bévarij

Nepenthe Festive féstiv cup káp Juice jús divine diváin Nectar néktar divine diváin Ruddy rádi mocha móuka A man's drink drínk Lovable lávabal liquor líkar Delicious dilíshas mocha móuka The magic méjik drink drínk This rich rích cordial kórjal Its stream strím divine diváin The family fémali drink drínk The festive féstiv drink drínk Coffee káfi is our gold góuld Nectar néktar of all men mén The golden góuldan mocha móuka This sweet swít nectar néktar Celestial saléschal ambrosia embróuzha The friendly fréndli drink drínk The cheerful chírfal drink drínk The essential isénshal drink drínk The sweet swít draught dréft The divine diváin draught dréft The grateful gréitfal liquor líkar The universal yunavársal drink drínk The American amérakan drink drínk The amber émbar beverage bévarij The convivial kanvívial drink drínk The universal yunavársal thrill thríl King kíng of all perfumes parfyúmz The cup káp of happiness hépinas The soothing súdhing draught dréft Ambrosia embróuzha of the Gods gádz The intellectual intalékchual drink drínk The aromatic eramétik draught dréft The salutary sélyateri beverage bévarij The good-fellow gúdfélou drink drínk The drink drínk of democracy dimákrasi The drink drínk ever évar glorious glórias Wakeful and civil síval drink drínk The beverage bévarij of sobriety sabráiati A psychological saikalájikal necessity nasésati The fighting fáiting man's drink drínk Loved lávd and favored féivard drink drínk The symbol símbal of hospitality haspatélati This rare rér Arabian aréibian cordial kórjal Inspirer of men mén of letters létarz The revolutionary revalúshaneri beverage bévarij Triumphant traiámfant stream strím of sable séibal Grave gréiv and wholesome hóulsam liquor líkar The drink drínk of the intellectuals intalékchualz A restorative rastórativ of sparkling spárkling wit wít Its color kálar is the seal síl of its purity pyúrati The sober sóubar and wholesome hóulsam drink drínk Lovelier than a thousand tháuzand kisses kísaz This honest ánast and cheering chíring beverage bévarij A wine wáin which no sorrow sárou can resist rizíst The symbol símbal of human hyúman brotherhood brádharhud At once wáns a pleasure plézhar and a medicine médasan The beverage bévarij of the friends fréndz of God gád The fire fáiar which consumes kansúmz our griefs Gentle jéntal panacea penasía of domestic daméstik troubles trábalz The autocrat ótakret of the breakfast brékfast table téibal The beverage bévarij of the children of God gád King kíng of the American amérakan breakfast brékfast table téibal Soothes súdhz you softly sóftli out of dull dál sobriety sabráiati The cup káp that cheers chírz but not inebriates inébrieits[1] Coffee káfi, which makes méiks the politician palatíshan wise wáiz Its aroma aróuma is the pleasantest in all nature néichar The sovereign sávran drink drínk of pleasure plézhar and health hélth[2] The indispensable indispénsabal beverage bévarij of strong stróng nations néishanz The stream strím in which we wash wásh away awéi our sorrows sárouz The enchanting enchénting perfume parfyúm that a zephyr zéfar has brought brót Favored féivard liquid líkwad which fills fílz all my soul sóul with delight diláit The delicious dilíshas libation we pour pór on the altar óltar of friendship fréndship This invigorating invígareiting drink drínk which drives dráivz sad séd care kér from the heart hárt

EVOLUTION evalúshan OF A CUP káp OF COFFEE káfi

Showing shóuing the various vérias steps stéps through which the bean bín passes pésaz from plantation plentéishan to cup káp

1 Planting plénting the seed síd in nursery nársari 2 Transplanting trensplénting into rows róuz 3 Cultivating káltiveiting and pruning prúning 4 Picking píking the cherries chériz 5 Pulping pálping 6 Fermenting farménting 7 Washing wáshing 8 Drying dráiing in the parchment párchmant 9 Hulling 10 Polishing pálishing 11 Grading gréiding 12 Transporting trenspórting to the seaport síport 13 Buying báiing and selling séling for export éksport 14 Transhipment overseas óuvarsíz 15 Buying báiing and selling séling at wholesale hóulseil 16 Shipment shípmant to the point of manufacture menyafékchar 17 Separating sépareiting 18 Milling míling 19 Mixing míksing or blending blénding 20 Roasting róusting 21 Cooling kúling and stoning stóuning 22 Buying báiing and selling séling at retail ríteil 23 Grinding gráinding 24 Making méiking the beverage bévarij

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